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Exam 3 Study Outline (got 93% on the test)

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PSYC 2000
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Fall 2013 PSYC 2000 Sec 001003Exam 3 Study OutlineChapter 6 Memory1What is memory oMemory is an active system that receives information from the senses puts information into a usable form organizes it as it stores it away and then retrieves the information from storageoWe cannot learn unless we can remember In other words without memory there is no learning oBoth a process that occurs as well as a place in the brain where a record is stored oBe able to describe the 3 processes of memory ie encoding storage retrieval including they operate differently look different depending on the system of memory ie sensory memory shortterm memory longterm memory Encoding putting it in The set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brains storage systems forming a memory code neural messages for transductionUsually requires attention Storage keeping it in Holding onto encoded information for some period of timeThe period of time will depend on the memory system being usedRetrieval getting it outGetting information that is in storage into a form that can be used Have a detailed understanding of the encoding and retrieval processes for the longterm memory system Encoding Sensory memory information is encoded into memory as neural messages simply the transduction Short term memory information may be encoded by rehearing the information over and over again in your mind or out loud to keep it in memory Longterm memory information may be encoded by elaborating on the meaning of the information using elaborative rehearsal Storage aSensory memory information for less than a second to four seconds bShort termworking memory hold onto information long enough for us to work with it about 20 seconds or so cLong term memory hold onto information more or less permanentlyRetrieval aSensory memory information in neural pathway can be accessed and used to gain meaning bShort term memory information from visual and auditory memory cLong term memory information can be retrieved through recognition and recall For example what is the difference between automatic and effortful encoding What would be examples of each type of encodingAutomatic processiWithout conciouss awareness iiFlashbulb memories dont require focused attention and effort to encode into our memory iiiEpisodic memories related to day to day activates that are constantly being updated and revised ivExample such as what you had for breakfast this morningwe constantly are automatically keeping track of things that happened to us Attention and effect to processiRequires that we direct our attention to it and put forth conscious effort to retain itthis processing leads to durable and sustainable memories iiExample reading a novel Name 5 strategies for enriching encoding into longterm memory Be able to describe each and identify examples when applied Related concepts to know include testing effect serial position effect schedule distributed practice maintenance versus elaborative rehearsal selective attention motivation acrostics acronyms rhymes link method method of loci chunking and hierarchyPay attention ensuring to minimize distraction Have high motivation during encoding Engage in adequate rehearsal especially elaborative deep processing of info testing effect serial position effectschedule distributed practice Use mnemonic devices acrostics acronyms rhymes link method method of loci Organizing information chunking and hierarchy Testing effect practicing of effortful retrieval of information actually promotes retention and future successful retrieval Serial position effect about the fact that information at the beginning and end of a list will be remembered more accurately than information in the middle of the listSchedules distributed practice diving up studying into more and smaller study sessions to reduce the amount of middle content and thus the possibility of not encoding that content sufficiently Maintance versus elaborative rehearsal one cue sounds or word or phrase versus more cues sound meaning relationship to other pieces of information or knowledge Selective attention the ability to focus on only one stimulus or a narrowed range of stimuli from among all
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