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Chapter 1

15 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 2000

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Chapter 1 An Introduction to PsychologyPsychology the scientific study of mental processes mind and behaviorAvoiding our opinions of why people behave like they do tarthadineCognitive mental processEmpiricism knowledge comes from direct experience scienceEmpirical question Are males more violent than femalesWe can test this question byEmpirical observation objective evidence gathered through direct observationst1 must find operational definition make checklist of what we are looking forDecide what behavior is aggressiveBeliefs are different between different peopleUse empiricism as a tool to gather informationCommon sense statements they contradict each otherNature vs NurtureCombination of both born with something but depends on environment from thereMindMental Processes the contents and processes of subjective experience sensations thoughts and emotionsDifferent interpretations subjectiveBehavior observable actions performed by a person or animal2 typesoVoluntary usually preceded by some kind of mental process ex HighjumpingoInvoluntary basically reflexes automatic predicting stimulusDichotomies in PsychologyMindBody dichotomy Is the mind and body the same thing or are they different entitiesoDualists mind and body are distinct but interacting entitiesMind nonphysicalBody physicalSocrates and PlatooMonists mind and body are different aspects of the same thing Aristotle used empiricism data collectionoToday the mind is nothing more than the activity of the brain chemical rxnsNature vs NurtureoJohn Locke tabula rosa human develops through experience nurtureBorn with clean slateKnowledge is acquired through experienceoJeanJacques Rousseau heredity forms the human natureBorn with all the knowledge you needWhat today psychologists doClinical and Counseling Psychology The healing professionoClinics mental hospitalsoClinical Psychologists diagnosis and treatment of psychological problemsDepression anxiety eating disordersoCounseling Psychologists helps people deal with naturally arising issuesDrug issue family problemsoPsychiatrist physician who focuses on mental disordersNeed PhD and MD can prescribe medicineoSocial Worker teaches clients to use social service systemsHave MSW masters of social workoPsychiatric Nurse provides psychotherapy and works with medical doctorsApplied PsychologyoBetter living through psychologyoConducts research to solve practical problemsoSocial Psychology jury selectionoWork Psychology how to deal with work stressoHuman factors psychologists improve products for more efficient use oAcademic psychology research and teachingoResearch Psychology tries to discover the basic principles of mind and behavioroDevelopmental Psychology how thinking and behaving develop with ageoCognitive Psych higher mental process such as thinking and memoryEarly Days Beginning to map mental process and behaviorPsychology has a long past and short historyOnly until recently do we study it as a scienceoWilhelm Wundt Leipzig Germany 1879 father of modern day psychologyoSchools of Thought what and how a phenomenon is studiedoStructuralism how basic elements sensations and feelings formed mental structure Introspection looking withinoEdward Titchener USA Harvard termed phrase structuralismoFunctionalism emphasized the purpose of immediate experienceoFounder William James applied Darwins theory to mental characteristicsoGestalt Psychology emphasized the overall patterns perceptual units of thoughts or experienceoFounder Max Wertheimer GermanyoPsychodynamic Theory continual push and pull interaction among conscious and unconscious forcesoFounder Sigmund Freud Vienna Austria was actually a neurologistChild absorbs morals from society and their parents and incorporates into personalityDreams are trying to make their way into consciousness
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