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PSYC 2017
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Psychology2017Exam1StudyGuideChapter2Quantitative research helps identify causal relationships by observing under controlled conditions the effects of systematically changing one or more variablesNumerical dataIndependent variable Mediating variableLinks IVDV chocolate increases alertness and makes memory betterModerating variableOnly occurs at a certain level memory is only better if chocolate is with coffeeQualitative research describes phenomenon using nonnumerical data like pictures or interview statementsCausation when the manipulation of one variable results in a predictable change in another variableChocolate causes better memory causing better test gradesEffect the difference between what would and what did happenTest scores with chocolate versus test scores without chocolateMethod of Agreement tells you if a variable is sufficient associationEvery time I accelerate my car makes a noiseMethod of Difference tells you if a variable is necessary presence or absenceCompare the amount of noise when my foot is on the gas pedal versus when it is removedPress other buttons to determine actual variabilityJoint Methods of Agreement and DifferenceIs accelerating necessary and sufficient to cause the noiseMethod of Concomitant VariationHow much acceleration is needed Do different amounts of acceleration cause different loudness or types of noiseDifficulties in Identifying Causes remove cause to prevent effectNo alternative interpretationsNecessarySufficientProbabilisticoNetwork of causeandeffect relationshipsoRarely 11oHuman behavior complicatesoNothing is 100 sureTry changing the cause to get an alternate effectMake sure no causes change
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