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Psyc 2017 Test 2 Outline

13 Pages

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PSYC 2017

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CH 5 Measuring Variables and SamplingVariable condition or characteristic that can take on different values or categoriesMeasurement assignment of symbols or numbers to something according to set of rulesScales of measurementoNominal variablesoOrdinal scaleoIntervaloRatiooNominalUses symbols such as words or numbers to classify or categorize the values of a variableExample mark gender1female 2 maleoCollege major research group personality type etc oOrdinalRankorder scaleExample order of finish in raceSocial class low medium highRanking of need for therapyLetter grade A BCD FoIntervalUsed to rank order plus has equal intervals or distances between adjacent numbersExamplesoCelsius tempoFahrenheit tempoIQ scoresoYearoRatioFullyquantitative includes rank ordering equal intervals plus has an absolute zero pointExampleoKelvin TempoResponse timeoHeightoWeightoAnnual incomeoGroup sizeUse the first letters of four scales to spell NOIR which means black in French to rememberReliabilityoConsistency or stability of scores we get from psyc testingoReliability coefficientType of correlation and should be strong and positive to indicate strong consistency of relationshipoTestretest reliabilityConsistency of group of individuals scores on a test over timeoIn other words should be able to test someone and then test them again a week later and the scores should have positively correlate and have a strong correlation should be similarExampleMemory test after chocolate once in classGive another memory test after chocolate at another time in classTest scores should be similaroEquivalent forms reliabilityScores from different but equivalent tests end up being similarConsistency of group of individuals scores on two versions of the same testExampleo2 different memory testsoInternal consistency reliabilitySingle question measures what its supposed to measureExamplePsychological research is conducted on constructs such as learning shyness love or any various personality dimensiontest or scale composed of multiple itemsNo single item is assumes to be able to provide a sufficient measure of the construct so multiple items are constructed each of which is assued to contribute to the measure of the constructI think of Meyers Briggs personality inventory bc will have certain questions that measure Introvert vs extravert intuitive vs sensate etc As test gets longer becomes more reliableCoefficient alpha or Cronbachs alpha 7 or higher and a high value is evidence that items are consistently measuring the same thingoInterrater ReliablityHaving two or more scorers or judgers of a certain test and then see how well their scores correlate bt each test Degree of consistency or agreement between two or more scorers judges obeservers or ratersACT test writing portion two people score and want their ratings to positively correlation and strongly correlate so you give a definite scoreInterobserver agreement percentage of times different raters agreeValidityoAccuracy of inferences interpretations or actions made on the basis of test scoresohow well a test measures what its supposed to measureoOperationalizationAlso called operational definitionWay a construct is represented and measured in a particular research studyOperational definition of memory retention in our study scores on test ExampleBeck Depression Inventory people who score above 20 have depression
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