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Exam 1 2017 Comprehensive Study Guide (98% on the test)

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Louisiana State University
PSYC 2017

Exam 1 My notesWhy learn about the scientific research process To learn the research process To better understand material presented in Psychology courses To become a critical consumer of information To develop critical and analytic thinking To develop the ability to critically read a research article To prepare for admission into graduate programsMethods of Acquiring Knowledge Intuitionknowing without reasoning An approach to acquiring knowledge that is not based on a known reasoning process Problemno mechanism for separating accurate from inaccurate knowledge Authorityfacts stated from a respected source A basis for acceptance of info because it is acquired from a highly respected source Problemauthority can be wrong or have different priorities The authority approach is used in research However an authority is an expert whose facts and info are subject to testing using the scientific process Rationalismknowledge from reasoning The acquisition of knowledge through reasoning All crows are black major premise This is a crow minor premise Therefore this crow is black conclusionProblemInsufficient by itself Empiricismknowledge from experience The acquisition of knowledge through experienceProblems with this method of acquiring knowledge Not everything can be perceived directlygravity Perception can be biased by expectation and past experience Stratton 1890s Visual illusions Intuition I just know that if I dont recopy my notes three times I will do horrible on the test Authority My 6th grade teacher told me that the best way to study is to do a little bit every day Rationalism If the test covers what is in my notes and I memorize my notes then I will pass Empiricism Every time I cram for a test I do well but if I study a little bit everyday I do not do wellScience Another method of acquiring knowledge that reduces errors and biases of the other methods Combines elements intuition authority rationalism and empiricism What is the best way to study Schmeck 1983 Methodological Study Traditional study methods type your notes outline the text make up practice tests Fact Retentionmemorizing definitions Elaborative Processing Generate examples from your own experience use imagery define terms using your own terminology Deep Processing Integrate material comparing and contrasting ideasScientific Method1 Identification of the problem and forming a hypothesis Hypotheses express the expected or predicted relationships between the variables Hypotheses must be stated in a form that is testable and refutable2 Designing the experiment Experimental variables independent variablesstudy method Response variables dependent variablestest performance3 Conducting the experiment4 Testing the hypothesis through statistical analysis5 Communicating the research resultsThe use of other methods of acquiring knowledge in Science IntuitionUsed in forming some hypotheses AuthorityCan be used in the design phase of a study RationalismUsed to derive hypotheses EmpiricismObservation used to collect data in scienceHistory of Scientific Methods Induction reasoning from specific to general A reasoning process that involves going from the specific to the general Specific experiments to general hypotheses or theory Sample to population Deduction reasoning from general to specific A reasoning process that involves going from the general to the specific Involved in forming hypotheses from theory Hypothesis testingtesting a predicted relationship from theory or experience The process of testing a predicted relationship or hypothesis by making observations and then comparing the observed facts with the hypothesis or predicted relationship What is most commonly referred to as the Scientific Method Hypothesis testing employs induction and deduction Hypotheses express the expected or predicted relationships between the variables Hypotheses must be stated in a form that is testable and refutableNotes online skip pages 911 soBasic Assumptions Underlying Science Uniformity or Regularity in Nature Determinism the belief that behavior is caused by specific events not random The belief that mental processes and behaviors are fully caused by prior natural factors
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