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2017 Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2017
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 6 Variables Used in ExperimentationIVariable any characteristic of an organism environment or experimental situation that can varyTypes of variablesaDiscrete vs ContinuousiDiscrete come in whole unites categories1No value in between2Ie ON OFF family specificof childreniiContinuous continual differing levels varying bw1Infiniteof units2Ie Dimmer volume knob attitudes toward Pres Bush ext positive to ext negativebQuantitative vs QualitativeiQuantitativevalueiiQualitative novalue qualities vary in kind1Discrete Quantities not continuous but numerical of kids2Continuous Quantity reaction time3Discrete Qualitative nationality cant benationality no 4Continuous qualitative Mood1Independent variable variable manipulated by the experimenter and of interest to the experimenter because it is hypothesized to be one of the causes of the presumed effect produces the effecta2 requirements to qualifyiVariation1Must be manipulable2 levels not random under controlaExperimental manipulation control over variable give specific amt to one group other group get another amountiInstructional manipulation ie Incidental memory vs purposeful memorydo you remember more when told you will be tested on the material risk for some to be inattentive introducing participants to participants variation of interpreting rules one group may receive 1 set of instruction other group receives another setiiEvent manipulation varying events selecting participants that differ in terms of some internal state1ie Given choc not given chocrdbIndividual differenceex post facto can have 3 variable problemicognitive failures questionnaire2Presented in at least 2 forms3Ways of manipulating the independent variableaPresence vs absence 1 group receives something other doesnt bAmount of a variable differing amt of variable to several groupscType of variableiiControl of variation hold constant to determine changes in variation1gender is not manipulated bc no controlbConstructions of Independent VariableiMust be translated into concrete operational terms1Easy with some ex Drugstime2Hard with those representing abstract construct ex Aggression delay of gratificationaAbstract variable show do you measure this Determines the operation definitionbLook at how it was studied in pastcProblem stems from no single definitioncConstruct validity extent to which the abstract construct can be inferred from the operational definition of that constructdRange difference bw the highest and lowest level of the variable you chooseiBe realisticiiNeed large enough range to show an effecteNumber of variablesiMore than 1 provides additional informationto many cause complicated analysesconduction of experimentiiIncrease variables increases difficulty in making sense of dataiiiTheoretically no limit to the number that can be used practically there is a limitivBehavior is multi determinablevInteraction differential effect that 1 IV has for each level of 1 or more additional IVviExample effects of task difficulty and anxiety on test performanceInteractionfEx Jury stimulation LandryAndersoni2 independent variables1characteristics of defendant2characteristics of victimiiFactorial design experimental design containing more than 1 independent variable in which every level of each IV is combined with every level of the other1b differing subjects2win same subject3looks at main effect and interactioniiilevel of IV1characteristics of defendantaattractive unattractive2characteristics of victimaattractiveunattractiveiv2x2 factorial designvbetween subject designvimain effects avg across mean total and interactions1lines parallel main effects w no interaction
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