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Exam 1 Notes

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Louisiana State University
PSYC 2017

Chapter 1 Why learn about the scientific research processoTo learn the research processoTo better understand material presented in Psychology coursesoTo become a critical consumer of informationoTo develop critical and analytic thinkingoTo develop the ability to critically read a research articleoTo prepare for admission into graduate programsWays of KnowingoIntuitionknowing without reasoning gut feelingProblem no mechanism for separating accurate from inaccurate knowledge Intuition can be deceivinginattentional blindness the invisible gorillaoAuthorityfacts stated from a respected source Problem authority can be wrong or have different priorities oDeduction or Rationalismknowledge from reasoning generalizingAll crows are black major premiseThis is a crow minor premiseTherefore this crow is black conclusion However thats an albino crow Inductionreasoning from specific to general Specific experiments to general hypotheses or theory Sample to population Deductionreasoning from general to specific Involved in forming hypotheses from theory oObservation or Empiricismknowledge from experience Problems our perceptions in the world arent necessarily true ie man came and picked up tractor that looked huge but turned out to be a toySeeing is BelievingPsychologist George M Stratton in the 1890s wore glasses that made him see everything upside down and after 5 days his brain adapted and he was seeing things as normal while wearing the glasses Impossible objects show us that we cannot always trust our experience Examples of Ways of KnowingoIntuition I just know that if I dont recopy my notes three times I will do horrible on the testoAuthoritythMy 6 grade teacher told me that the best way to study is to do a little bit every dayoDeduction or Rationalism1If the test covers what is in my notes and I memorize my notes then I will passoObservation or EmpiricismEvery time I cram for a test I do well but if I study a little bit everyday I do not do wellWrite down something you KNOW to be TRUEoGrass is green observationThe Scientific MethodoAnother way of knowing that reduces errors and biases of the other methodsCombines elements of intuition authority deduction and observationoAKAHypothesis testingtesting a predicted relationship from theory or experienceHypotheses express the expected or predicted relationships between the variablesHypotheses must be stated in a form that is testable and refutableSteps of Scientific MethodoStep 1 Choosing a research questionoStep 2 Conducting a literature reviewoStep 3 Developing a hypothesisoStep 4 Designing the studyoStep 5 Conducting the study oStep 6 Analyzing the dataoStep 7 Reporting the resultsSteps to experimentally testing my research questionoIdentify and operationally define my variablesIndependent variable IV what you manipulateie whether or not you got chocolateDependent variable DV what you observeie how many words you were able to recall Hypothesis Eating chocolate prior to a word memory test will increase the number of words recalled oManipulate the independent variableoObserve the outcomeoDecide how much confidence you can place in the findingsCategories of extraneous variables Subjectrelevant variablesSituationrelevant variables Ways of Knowing Scientific MethodoWhat is the best way to study oSchmeck 1983surveyMethodological Study2
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