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PSYC 2017exam Notes (got 96%)

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PSYC 2017
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Psyc 2017 Notes EXAM I NotesScience and the Experimental Approach Chapter 1Methods of Acquiring KnowledgeTenacitybased on superstition represent beliefs that are reacted to as if they were fact or habit principle of longevity continue believing in something we have always belivedMere Exposurethe more we are exposed to something or the more familiar it becomes the more we like itExample political campaignsProblemsKnowledge that is acquired through mere exposure may be inaccurateDoes not provide a mechanism for correcting erroneous superstitionshabits in the face of evidence to the contraryIntuition act or process of coming to direct knowledge without reasoning or inferringDoes not provide a mechanism for separating accurate from inaccurate knowledgeUsed most readily in forming hypothesesAuthorityrepresents an acceptance of info or facts stated by another because the person is a highly respected sourceProblem facts ma be inaccurateRationalismuses reasoning to arrive at knowledge and assumes that valid knowledge is acquired if the correct reasoning process is usedDoes not neccessarilty reflect reality and frequently does not provide accurate infoEmpiricismIf I have experienced something then it is valid and trueAny facts that concur with experience are accepted and those that do not are rejectedProblem our perceptions are affected by many variables past experiences motives memory does not remain constantScience empiricism refers to the collection of unbiased data not to personal experience of an eventInductive and Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Understanding a specific case and creating a generalizationTaking specific observations and inferring a general stateExample see a child kickingscreaming infer the child is angryDeductive Reasoning Understanding a general concept and applying it to a specific instanceHypothesis Testing HypothesisThe specific and logical prediction for the solution to a problemShould be based on previous research findingsTesting should include a means of confirmation and disconfirmation falsificationLogical Positivism a philosophical approach a statement is meaningful only when it is verifiable by observationConfirmation uses Inductive ReasoningFalsification deductive reasoning focus of attention is on the hypothesis that is derived from a theory and whether this hypotheses is confirmed or refutedInductive approach of hypothesis testing is dominantNaturalismNaturalism takes the position that science should be studied and evaluated empirically in the same way as any specific scientific fieldWe will have a more adequate account of science if we attempt to understand the theoretical framework in which science actively takes placeNormal Science a period in which scientific activity that is governed and directed by a single paradigmParadigm is a framework of thought or beliefs by which you interpret realityRevolutionary Science a period in which scientific activity is characterized by the replacement of one paradigm with anotherThe belief that governs the view of reality is therefore changedResearch Program a succession of theories that are linked by a set of fundamental principles that represent the defining characteristics of the research programThe Important Terms for ResearchObjective Observation Observation that is independent of opinion or biasControl The elimination of extraneous variable that could affect the outcome of the experimentEnables scientists to identify the causes of their observationsOperationalsim Representing constructs by a specific set of observations never completely represent the contructOperational Definition The specified definition of the concepts studied in the experimentExample measurement of length measured in inches v centimeters depends how it measuredMultiple Operationalism Using multiple measures of a constructProbability of obtaining a more complete representation of the construct increasesReplication The ability to repeat or reproduce the results of a study by a different researcher or in a new settingIntergroup attempting to duplicate results on another group of individualsIntersubject attempting to duplicate results on other individualsIntrasubject attempting to duplicate results with the same person on different occasionsObjectives of Scientific ResearchDescription The accurate portrayal of a situation or phenomenon identification of variables that exist and to what degree they existExplanation Determination of the cause of a given phenomenonMust be able to identify the antecedent conditions that result in the occurrence of the phenomenonPrediction The ability to anticipate the occurrence of an eventRequires knowledge of the antecedent conditions that produce a phenomenonControl The manipulation of the conditions that determine a phenomenonA comparison groupElimination of the influence of extraneous variablesManipulation of antecedent conditions to produce a change in behaviorBasic Assumptions Underlying Scientific ResearchUniformity in NatureA search for order for uniformities for lawful relations among the events in natureWithout uniformity we could not develop theories laws or factsDeterminism the belief that behavior is caused by specific eventsReality in Nature The assumption that the things we see hear feel and taste are real and have substanceRationality The assumption that there is a rational basis for the events that occur in nature and they can be understood through the use of logical thinkingRegularity The assumption that events in nature follow the same laws and occur the same way at all times and placesDiscoverability The assumption that it is possible to discover that uniformities that exist in natureThe Experimental Research ApproachQuantitive approach designed to discover the effects of presumed causesAttempt to identify causal relationshipsInvolves a manipulated variableDoes not include age gender etcPurpose to show causation between the manipulated variable and the resultCausation manipulation of one event produces another eventMeans that you affected the effectCause A contextually dependent event that makes something else exist
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