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Midterm Study Guide- Complete With Notes

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PSYC 2040
All Professors

CHAPTER 1Social Psychology scientific study of how people think about influence and relate to one another Social thinking Social influence Social relationsCompare and ContrastPersonality Psychology focuses on individual how differences in character traits influence behaviorSociology Focuses on group how various overarching factors eg class conflict competition btw ethnic groups influence general patterns of behavior concerned with topics such as social class social structure and social institutionsSocial Psychology Focuses on the individual how a persons social situations eg other people in the environment their attitudes and their behaviors affect that persons behaviorGoals of the scientific method1Description2Prediction3UnderstandingCharacteristics of the scientific method1Empirical Approach Knowledge is gain exclusively through direct observations2Systematic Controlled Observation3Unbiased Objective Reporting4Clear Operational Definition eg you cant measure aggression however you can measure theof times a brother hits a sister5Valid and Reliable Measurement6Testable Hypothesis7Critical Skeptical Attitude8Selfcorrecting multiple observations multiple methods of studying similar phenomenaTheory Integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events eg obedience to authorityHypothesisTestable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between eventsField Research Everyday situations Dutton and Aron Attraction studyLaboratory ResearchControlled situation Milgrams Obedience studyExperimental Research Seeks clues to causeeffect relationships by manipulating one or more variablesPositives1Control2Can imply causationNegatives1Limited in the range of theories that can be tested2May be artificialCorrelation Research Naturally occurring relationships among variablesPositives 1Examine a broader range of phenomena2Naturalistic setting3Often easier cheaper fasterNegativesrd1Does NOT imply causation 3 variable problemIndependent Variable Experimental factor that a researcher manipulatesDependent Variable Variable being measured depends on manipulations of the independent variableExtraneous Variable Variable that affects the dependent variable and is not the independent variableExperimental ControlCHAPTER 2
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