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Final Exam Notes In Word Outline Form

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PSYC 2040
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PrejudiceChapter 9PrejudiceDefining Prejudice Preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members Individual members are judged solely on their group membership Beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of peopleSupported by stereotypesTypes of PrejudiceRacism Prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given raceSexism Prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sexComponents of PrejudiceTwo components of PrejudiceCognitive Component the attitude StereotypeBehavioral Component the behavior DiscriminationStereotypes Cognitive ComponentDefining StereotypeA generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group regardless of actual variation among the members Can be either positive negative or neutral A type of cognitive shortcut heuristicStereotypes aredo not necessarilyEmotionalLead to discrimination Falsely founded Example of a StereotypeGender Stereotype Women are seen as more nurturing and less assertive than men Evolutionary psychologists argue that the difference is due to a basis in the behaviors required for reproductive success Stereotype that has some basis of truthDiscrimination Behavioral ComponentDefining Discrimination An unjustified negative or harmful action towards a member of a group simply because of his or her membership in that groupInducing PrejudiceReal World ExperimentSchool teacher Jane ElliottDivided her class according to eye color Blue and brown Those children with blue eyes were given preferential treatment and told they were superior to the brown eyed childrenResults less than 30 minutes later Blue eyed children Began taunting and criticizing the browneyed children Browneyed children Lowered selfesteem and lower academic performance that dayExplaining PrejudiceTwo explanations Cognitive ExplanationPrejudice and Economic Competition Realistic Conflict TheoryPrejudice Cognitive ExplanationCognitive ExplanationByproduct of categorization schemas and heuristics How prejudice arisesFaulty Memory ProcessesProblems Processing Information How prejudice persistsCategorization Schemas and HeuristicsHow they work Processes that extract information from our environment Information is then used to create categories Once categories are formed this information is used to put things people events objects into aforementioned categoriesThese processes allow Social CategorizationSocial Categorization Social categorization follows those same steps with individuals However due to the complexity of an individual it is difficult to create categories that both separate individuals and do not overlap Ie person doesnt belong to more than one category categories are distinct from one anotherResult Ingroup bias and outgroup homogeneity bias InGroup BiasDefining InGroup Bias Two partsPositive feelings and special treatment we reserve for people we have
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