PSYC 2076 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Institute For Operations Research And The Management Sciences, Toilet Training, Operant Conditioning

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PSYC 2076
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 2 Theoretical Perspectives and Research
I. Perspectives on Children
Here, we’re going to take a look at some various approaches to child development. They all
have different theories.
A. Psychodynamic Perspective define- The approach to the study of development
that states behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts of which
a person has little awareness or control
Psychoanalytic theory - define- The theory proposed by Freud that suggests that
unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior
Unconscious define- Things and feelings that we have no knowledge of and are
out of our awareness, responsible for a good part of everyday behavior
1. Three Aspects of Personality
a. Id define - the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality that is
present at birth. It represents primitive drives related to hunger,
sex, aggression, and irrational impulses. Pleasure principle
The id is driven by the pleasure principle - define-the goal is to maximize satisfaction
and reduce tension
b. Ego - define- part of the personality that is rational and reasonable.
Acts as a buffer between the real world outside of us and the
primitive id
The ego operates based on the reality principle define- instinctual energy is restrained
to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society
c. Superego - define- a person’s conscience, incorporated distinctions
between right and wrong. It develops around age 5 ot 6 and is
learned from an individuals parents, teachers, and other significant
figures
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The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. It works to suppress all unacceptable
urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon
realistic principles.
2. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development
Psychoanalytic theory suggested that personality is mostly established by the age of five. Early
experiences play a large role in personality development and continue to influence behavior later
in life.
If these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, the result is a healthy personality. If
certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate stage, fixation can occur. A fixation - define-
behavior reflecting an earlier stage of development due to an unresolved conflict
a. Oral stage define- ( birth to 12-18 months) Interest in oral
gratification from sucking, eating, biting, mouthing
b. Anal stage define- (12-18 months to 3 years) Gratification from
expelling and withholding feces; coming to terms with society’s
controls relating to toilet training
c. Phallic stage define- (3 to 5-6 years) Interest in the genitals;
coming to terms with Oedipal conflict, leading to identification
with same sex parent
d. Latency stage - define - (5-6 years to adolescence) Sexual
concerns largely unimportant
e. Genital stage define-( adolescence to adulthood) Reemergence
of sexual interests and establishment of mature sexual relationships
B. The Psychosocial Perspective - A student of Freud’s Erik Erikson, had a
different view of development. In particular, he saw developmental stages beyond adolescence,
reflecting differing priorities as we age. In this way, he is the first true lifespan theorist. We will
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