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PSYC 2076
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PSYCH 2076 notesChapter 1child developmentObjectives why and how we study and how we apply knowledge1Why we study the development of children and adolescentsiThe impact of early experience on later developmentiiSigmund Freud believed that a persons character and mental life are determined by age 6this isnt really true2Longitudinal studiesiBetter childcarebetter academics at age 15iiContinuities Do conscientious children become conscientious adultsthese conscientious children DID grow up to be conscientious adults and lived a longer life less suicide drugs alcohol etc3Early experiences are like the foundation of the house later experiences fill it out Examples secure attachment predicts later romantic relationships but so do relationships with peers later in life4DEVELOPMENTsystematic changes that occur as we move from birth to young adulthood5Domains of developmentiPhysical iiCognitiveiiiSocialemotional6Issues of development studyiNature biology vs nurture environmentiiContinuous vs stagelike developmentiiiStability vs change over timeivAdaptive and maladaptive developmentvIndividual differencesviDiversityviiThe role of the child7Research methodsiObservationsiiInterviewssurveysiiiTests standardized projective inkblot neuropsychological brain activity8How to be a good consumer of information about child developmentiKnow the sourceiiExamine question the evidenceiiiBecome a critical thinkerivBeware of making generalizationsvBe aware of perceptual biasesviQuestion common sense9How we apply child developmentiParents and families use all kinds of information to understand and interact with their childreniiProfessionals use general information but also specialized information to work with children to promote growth and wellbeingiiiWork for want to be parts of governmentlike creating laws and policies EX Head StartChapter 2theories of development1Theories of Child and Adolescent Development are important to understand organize and predict theoriesresearchetc2Quantitative versus qualitative make theories differ3Why does development happenBiological forces and environmental factors4How does the theory describe the development Quantitatively in Steps or qualitatively in stages5What drives development Biological processes or environmental processes6Psychoanalytic theorySigmund FreudiImportance of the unconscious mind1Free association let the patient say anything and everything that comes to the mind2Dream interpretation unconscious mind was at work in your dreams3Psychoanalytic psychotherapy going back into your childhood and looking at things that happened in your lifeii3 parts of the personality1Idpleasure principle2Egoreality principle3Superegoconscience moralityiiiStages1Oral02 years focuses on pleasure in the mouth taking in2Anal23 years focus of pleasure on the anus potty training3Phallic36 years focus of pleasure is on the penis for boys clitoris for girls Oedipus boy is scared of dad due to his anger at fatherscared of castration and Electra girls believe they once had a penis and that is was cut offpenis envy want to marry their dad and kill momwant to have a boy to produce penis crisis
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