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Final

Completed Final Study Guide

35 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2076
Professor
All

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Child Psychology 2076 Final Exam Study GuideChapter 11 Know why we study the development of childrenThe impact of early experience on later developmentoSigmund Freud believed that a persons character and mental life are determined by age 62 Longitudinal StudiesLongitudinal studies have shown early experiences such as quality of childcare predict outcomes such as level of language development3DevelopmentDevelopment is systematic changes that occur as we move from birth to young adulthoodoThe domains of development arePhysical development the body and the brainCognitive development thinking understanding and reasoningSocialemotional development connecting to others and understanding feelings4 Nature vs Nurture5Different types of research methodsThree different methods of research areoObservationsoInterviewssurveys directly to children or to others who know the childrenoTests Standardized projective inkblot neuropsychological brain activity6How can you be a good consumer of developmental informationKnow the source of your informationExamine the evidencequestion authorityBecome a critical thinkerBeware of making generalizationsBe aware of perceptual biasQuestion common senseChapter 21Why are theories important to the study of child developmentTheories help us tooOrganizeoUnderstandoPredict2 Know Freuds stages of childhood development Freud believed our most basic drive is the sex drive He outlined five stages in the child and adolescent development which he called the psychosexual stages oOral02 years Focus of pleasure is on the mouth taking inoAnal23 yearsFocus of pleasure is on the anus potty trainingoPhallic36 yearsFocus of pleasure is on the penis for boys clitoris for girls Oedipus and Electra crisisoLatency612 years oldsSexual drive goes underground and gives energy to learning to be an adult schoolingoGenital12 and older Adult sexuality3 Freuds 3 parts of personalityIdpleasure principleEgoreality principleSuperegoconscience morality4Free AssociationFreud believed that free association in which a person allows thoughts to float freely without censorship 5 Dream interpretationFreud used dream analysis as ways of gaining insight into the working unconscious mind6 Psychoanalytic psychotherapy7 Erickson stages of development be familiarErickson developed the psychosocial stages of development in which he believed that issues are rooted in social experiences that are typical of each stage of development rather than urgesoTrust vs mistrustDevelopment of trust in maternal care and in ones own ability to cope vs hopelessnessoAutonomy vs shamedoubtIndependence and selfcontrol vs lace of confidence oInitiative vs guiltExuberant activity vs overcontroloIndustry vs inferiorityLearning the tasks of ones society vs a sense of inadequacy oIdentity vs role confusionIntegration of previous experiences to form an identity vs confusion about ones role in society oIntimacy vs isolationAbility to form close relationships vs fear of losing the self oGenerativity vs stagnationGuiding the next generation vs preoccupation with ones own needs oIntegrity vs despairAchievement of a sense of meaning in life vs focus on fear of death 8John Watson John B Watson is the father of the theory known as behaviorism9Behaviorism and classical conditioningBehaviorism is based on principles of classical conditioning and operant conditioning and focuses on environmental control of observable behavior One way in which we learn from our environment is through a process called classical conditioning and is the process by which the stimulus the unconditioned stimulus that naturally evokes a certain response the unconditioned response is paired repeatedly with a neutral stimulus Eventually the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus and evokes the same response now called the conditioned response 10BF Skinner and operant conditioningOperant conditioning is a voluntary response is strengthened by its association with positive consequencesoReinforcement is a stimulus that increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeatedoNegative reinforcement is the removal of a stimulus increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeatedoPunishment is a negative consequence reduces the likelihood of a behavior happening againoExtinction is ignoring a behavior makes it stop11Bandure and social cognitive theoryBandure became focused on the idea of learning through imitation and developed social cognitive learning theory in which learning occurs from watching other people social but is also processed in ones mind cognitive 12 Piagets stages of developmentSensorimotorBirth2 yearsoInfants take in information through their senses and their action upon the world
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