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PSYC 2076 Test 2 Notes

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Louisiana State University
PSYC 2076

Psychology 2076 TEST 2 NOTESChapter 6 Language DevelopmentWhat is languageShared rulegoverned system of symbolic communicationCharacteristics of LanguageSocial toolits a way of communicating among members of a cultureRuleboundset of rules that tell us how our language should workActive processrequires competence and application of the rulesCreativelimitless ways that we can combine wordsSpoken or nonspokenthings people say sign language gestures facial expressionsoSpeech Dynamicdevelops and changes about six new words added to the English language everydayAspects of LanguagePhonologythe soundsMorphologythe makeup of wordsSyntaxthe order of the wordsSemanticsthe content or meaning of wordsFormPhonologyoSet of linguistic rules that govern the structure position and sequence of speech soundsoPhonemesbasic building blocks of language smallest unit of sound that can make a difference in meaningoExamples Bee b is a phonemeMorphologyoSet of linguistic rules that govern the makeup of wordsoMorphemesunits of meaning that are usually one to two phonemesoExamples turn cant break down anymore without changing meaning re or ending word in lySyntaxoSet of linguistic rules that govern sentence structure way words are put together to make a complete thoughtoExamples John went inside subject then verbContentSemanticsoSet of rules that govern the meaning of and relationships between wordsoExample Which is the most unlike the other twoCabbage Apple CarrotCarrot Cow HorseoSynonymswords that mean the same thing talk and speakoAntonymsopposite things big and littleUsePragmaticsoSet of rules that govern the use of language for communication guidebook that tells you how to communicate with other people how to ask for things carry on a conversation telling a story or joke or adjusting your speech to the listeners perspectiveoDepends of age gender and social statuskids talk differently to friends than parents or teachers setting that we are in affects the way we use languagePrelinguistic SpeechForerunner of linguistic speechRecognizing language sounds oBirthwe learn to perceive speech recognize our moms voice etc even though we dont understand the meaningo45 monthskids start to become familiar with sound patterns usually their name is one of the first things they learn to recognizeo6 monthskids start to recognize the phonemes in their languageEarly VocalizationsoNewborns crying very first vocalization kids have different pitches when they cry one when tired hungry angry dirty etco6 weeks3 months cooing happy baby noisesletting you know when they are feeling happyo36 months cooing a lot more learning to match sounds with what is going on around themo610 months babbling CV streams mamama a lot of times mistaken for babies first wordso910 months they can start deliberately imitating sounds and starting to understand themGesturesalternative or supplement to wordso9 months pointing to thingso912 months conventional social gesturesthings like waving goodbye nodding their head yes and noo13 months representational gesturesthings like holding up an empty cup if want a drink blowing things that are hot using gestures to represent their wordso1014 months symbolic gesturesabout the same time that their first words appear as kids develop more words they use less and less gesturesFirst Words and SentencesLinguistic speechverbal expression that can conveys meaning usually first words between 1014 months of age first ones they understand are the ones they hear most often name and NOHolophraseone word that expresses a complete thought up to mean pick me upExpressive vocabularyjust their spoken vocabularyNaming explosionbetween 1624 months of age kids will go from saying about 50
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