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PSYC 2076
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PSYCH 2076 notestest 3 notesChapter 9 Language Development1Basic units of language phonology syntax semantics and pragmaticsaSyntax the grammar of languagebPhonology The study of the sounds of languagecPragmatics The rules that guide how we use language in social situationsdSemantics The study of the meanings of words2Theories of language development aSocial cognitive learning theory learning language by imitationbBehaviorism language is shaped by operant conditioning BF SkinnercMothers that vocalize more have children who talk earlier and moredNativism universal grammar ChomskyiChildren use sentences they have never heard beforeiiOverrefularization supports that there are inborn rules that children follow when theyre young exthe cat eated the mouseeCognitive processing theory children take in and process the language they hear relies on computational ability of the human brainiInfants can differentiate words from a series of syllables in a row by using the frequency with which some syllables end up beside other syllables and the frequency which others do notstatistical learning3Semantic Bootstrapping The use of conceptual categories to create grammatical categories4Syntactic bootstrapping The use of syntax to learn the meaning of new words semantics5Telegraphic speech A stage in language development in which children only use the words necessary to get their point across and omit small words that are not necessary for ex Go up6Transitional bilingual education programs Programs for English language learners in which students receive some instruction in their native language while they also receive concentrated instruction in learning English7Phonological disorder A language disorder in which the child has difficulty with producing sounds or using sounds correctly8Whole Language instruction A way to teach reading that emphasizes understanding the meaning of words from the context in which they appear9Fast mapping A process by which children apply constraints and their knowledge of grammar to learn new words very quickly often after a single exposure10Egocentric speech A limitation of young childrens communication due to their inability to take the perspective of other people into account11Emergent literacy The set of skills that develop before children begin formal reading instruction which provide the foundation for later academic skills
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