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PSYC 2078 Test 2 Review (aced the test and got 96%)

15 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 2078

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Ch 4 Cognitive DevelopmentICognitive DevelopmentaCognitionthe act of knowing or perceiving thinkingbChanges during adolescence and emerging adulthood in how young people think solve problems and their capacities from memory and attentionIIPiagets Theory of Cognitive DevelopmentaMost influential theory of cognitive developmentbBegan his work in Alfred Binets Paris laboratory where modern intelligence tests originatedcBecame more interested in how children reached conclusions rather than in whether their answers were correctdAge differences in patterns of wrong answers reflected differences in how children of various ages thought about questionseCognitive Development is combined result of environmental influences and maturation of brain and various systemfEffect of environment limitediEnvironment only effective if it is extremegOther researchers thought any amount of development was possiblehThought learning was an active processchildren seek out material that matches their maturity Montessori schoolsIIIPiagets Theory of Cognitive DevelopmenttheoriesaSchemaorganized structured set of cognitions about some concept or stimuliiEx schema for classbAdaptationincluding and adjusting to new info that increases a persons understandingiAssimilationacquiring new info by using already existing structures in response to new environmental stimuli kind of like adding new things to a certain folder already madeiiAccommodationadjusting to new info by creating new structures to replace the old onecEquilibrationshift from one state to anotheriNew info isnt understood by old way of thinking and a child has to develop a new way of thinking like an update on a computerIVPiagets StagesaSensorimotorbirth to 2 yrslearn to coordinate physical motor actions with sensory experiencesiMove from selfcentered to objectcentered worldiiNot really thinkingmore of a stimulusresponse connection with the physical worldiiiConquest of the objectfiguring out world around usbPreoperational stage27children begin learning and manipulating symbolsiSymbolic play AKA internalized imitation Learn other objects can be played with as other thingsiiStill not able to think logicallyiiiConquest of the symbol particularly wordsivErrors1Syncretismtrying to link ideas that arent related to each other2Egocentrismdifficulty understanding that other people have a different world view than them3Animismbelief that inanimate objects are alivecConcrete operational Stage711show some capacity for logical reasoning though it relates only to things actually experiencediClassinclusion relationships serialization hierarchical classifications reciprocityiiConservationawareness that altering an objects appearance doesnt change its basic properties1Beaker Testpour liquid from a taller beaker into a shorterwider beaker to see if child knows the differenceiiiMastering classes relations and quantitiesdFormal operational stage11 on upadolescents move beyond concrete actual experiences and begin to think in more logical abstract and idealistic termsiInductive reasoningbringing a number of facts together and constructing theories on the basis of these factsiiDeductive reasoningstarting with a theory and then coming up with logical statements based on that theoryiiiProjection into the futureivConquest of thoughtvHypotheticaldeductive reasoningability to systematically test possible solutions to a problem and arrive at an answered that can be defended and explainedeOperationsmental actionsthey allow individuals to do mentally what was done before physicallyVSymbols for SymbolsaCan use symbols to represent other symbolsbMakes adolescents thoughts more flexiblepowerful than a childscCapacity for abstract thinking complex thinking and metacoginitioniAbstract thinkingstrictly a mental concept or process ex Love friendship honoriiComplex thinkingmore likely to see things in greater complexity and perceive multiple aspects of a situation or ideas1Metaphor2Sarcasm3Satiremixes metaphor and sarcasm4Idealismproject self in futureiiiMetacoginitionability to think about ones own though processes1Can learn solve problems more efficiently
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