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PSYC 2078 Test 2 Review (aced the test and got 96%)

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2078
Professor
All

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Ch. 4 Cognitive Development
I. Cognitive Development
a. Cognition – the act of knowing or perceiving (thinking)
b. Changes during adolescence and emerging adulthood in how young people
think, solve problems, and their capacities from memory and attention
II. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
a. Most influential theory of cognitive development
b. Began his work in Alfred Binet’s Paris laboratory, where modern intelligence tests
originated
c. Became more interested in how children reached conclusions rather than in
whether their answers were correct
d. Age differences in patterns of wrong answers reflected differences in how
children of various ages thought about questions
e. Cognitive Development is combined result of environmental influences and
maturation of brain and various system
f. Effect of environment; limited
i. Environment only effective if it is extreme
g. Other researchers thought any amount of development was possible
h. Thought learning was an active process – children seek out material that
matches their maturity (Montessori schools)
III. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development – theories
a. Schema – organized, structured set of cognitions about some concept or stimuli
i. Ex: schema for class
b. Adaptation – including and adjusting to new info that increases a person’s
understanding
i. Assimilation – acquiring new info by using already existing structures in
response to new environmental stimuli (kind of like adding new things to a
certain folder already made)
ii. Accommodation – adjusting to new info by creating new structures to
replace the old one
c. Equilibration – shift from one state to another
i. New info isn’t understood by old way of thinking, and a child has to
develop a new way of thinking (like an update on a computer)
IV. Piaget’s Stages
a. Sensorimotor – birth to 2 yrs – learn to coordinate physical motor actions with
sensory experiences
i. Move from self-centered to object-centered world
ii. Not really “thinking” – more of a stimulus-response connection with the
physical world
iii. Conquest of the object – figuring out world around us
b. Preoperational stage – 2-7 – children begin learning and manipulating symbols
i. Symbolic play, AKA internalized imitation. Learn other objects can be
played with as other things
ii. Still not able to think logically
iii. Conquest of the symbol, particularly words
iv. Errors
1. Syncretism – trying to link ideas that aren’t related to each other
2. Egocentrism – difficulty understanding that other people have a
different world view than them
3. Animism – belief that inanimate objects are alive
c. Concrete operational Stage – 7-11 – show some capacity for logical reasoning,
though it relates only to things actually experienced
i. Class-inclusion relationships; serialization; hierarchical classifications,
reciprocity
ii. Conservation – awareness that altering an objects appearance doesn’t
change its basic properties
1. Beaker Test – pour liquid from a taller beaker into a shorter-wider
beaker to see if child knows the difference
iii. Mastering classes, relations and quantities
d. Formal operational stage – 11 on up – adolescents move beyond concrete,
actual experiences and begin to think in more logical, abstract, and idealistic
terms
i. Inductive reasoning – bringing a number of facts together and
constructing theories on the basis of these facts
ii. Deductive reasoning – starting with a theory and then coming up with
logical statements based on that theory
iii. Projection into the future
iv. Conquest of thought
v. Hypothetical-deductive reasoning – ability to systematically test possible
solutions to a problem and arrive at an answered that can be defended
and explained
e. Operations – mental actions – they allow individuals to do mentally what was
done before physically
V. Symbols for Symbols
a. Can use symbols to represent other symbols
b. Makes adolescent’s thoughts more flexible/powerful than a child’s
c. Capacity for abstract thinking, complex thinking, and metacoginition
i. Abstract thinking – strictly a mental concept or process (ex. Love,
friendship, honor)
ii. Complex thinking – more likely to see things in greater complexity and
perceive multiple aspects of a situation or ideas
1. Metaphor
2. Sarcasm
3. Satire – mixes metaphor and sarcasm
4. Idealism – project self in future
iii. Metacoginition – ability to think about one’s own though processes
1. Can learn, solve problems more efficiently
a. Ex more likely to use mnemonics (making acronyms to
remember things)
VI. Limitations of Piaget’s Theory
a. Individual differences
i. Age(s) – when do we go through this
ii. Social environment
1. Ex. Fewer economically deprived adolescents achieve formal
thought than do their more privileged counterparts
iii. Exposure to math and science classes
iv. Gray – 1990 – effort energy and knowledge (Piaget underestimated the
process of logic)
v. Adolescents use formal operations where situations where they have the
most experience and knowledge
b. Culture and formal operations
i. Privileged population were the ones Piaget studied
ii. Everyone can reach formal operations as long as the environment gives
enough stimulation
iii. Early ‘70’s, researchers found cultures varied widely in prevalence of
understanding formal operations as measured by Piagetian tasks
iv. Piaget – will apply formal operations first (perhaps only) in areas of
experience/expertise
v. Culture-appropriate materials
vi. Impact of schooling
VII. Emerging Adulthood – Post Formal Thinking
a. Cognitive development often continues past formal operations
b. 2 aspects of post formal thinking
i. Pragmatism – adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-
life situations
ii. Reflective judgment – capacity to evaluate accuracy and logical
coherence of evidence and arguments
1. Dualistic thinking – black and white
2. Multiple thinking – more than one side to an issue
3. Relativism – still thinks there are multiple views on an given
subject but is now able to weigh the relative merits
4. Commitment – commit to certain points of view, while being open
to reevaluating their views
c. Post formal thinking may be more due to education than to maturation
VIII. Information Processing Approach
a. Componential approach – breaking down thinking process into various
components
i. Attention
1. Stimuli (don’t really sense all the stimuli around us)
2. Selective attention – focus on relevant info while screening out
irrelevant info

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Description
Ch 4 Cognitive DevelopmentICognitive DevelopmentaCognitionthe act of knowing or perceiving thinkingbChanges during adolescence and emerging adulthood in how young people think solve problems and their capacities from memory and attentionIIPiagets Theory of Cognitive DevelopmentaMost influential theory of cognitive developmentbBegan his work in Alfred Binets Paris laboratory where modern intelligence tests originatedcBecame more interested in how children reached conclusions rather than in whether their answers were correctdAge differences in patterns of wrong answers reflected differences in how children of various ages thought about questionseCognitive Development is combined result of environmental influences and maturation of brain and various systemfEffect of environment limitediEnvironment only effective if it is extremegOther researchers thought any amount of development was possiblehThought learning was an active processchildren seek out material that matches their maturity Montessori schoolsIIIPiagets Theory of Cognitive DevelopmenttheoriesaSchemaorganized structured set of cognitions about some concept or stimuliiEx schema for classbAdaptationincluding and adjusting to new info that increases a persons understandingiAssimilationacquiring new info by using already existing structures in response to new environmental stimuli kind of like adding new things to a certain folder already madeiiAccommodationadjusting to new info by creating new structures to replace the old onecEquilibrationshift from one state to anotheriNew info isnt understood by old way of thinking and a child has to develop a new way of thinking like an update on a computerIVPiagets StagesaSensorimotorbirth to 2 yrslearn to coordinate physical motor actions with sensory experiencesiMove from selfcentered to objectcentered worldiiNot really thinkingmore of a stimulusresponse connection with the physical worldiiiConquest of the objectfiguring out world around usbPreoperational stage27children begin learning and manipulating symbolsiSymbolic play AKA internalized imitation Learn other objects can be played with as other thingsiiStill not able to think logicallyiiiConquest of the symbol particularly wordsivErrors1Syncretismtrying to link ideas that arent related to each other2Egocentrismdifficulty understanding that other people have a different world view than them3Animismbelief that inanimate objects are alivecConcrete operational Stage711show some capacity for logical reasoning though it relates only to things actually experiencediClassinclusion relationships serialization hierarchical classifications reciprocityiiConservationawareness that altering an objects appearance doesnt change its basic properties1Beaker Testpour liquid from a taller beaker into a shorterwider beaker to see if child knows the differenceiiiMastering classes relations and quantitiesdFormal operational stage11 on upadolescents move beyond concrete actual experiences and begin to think in more logical abstract and idealistic termsiInductive reasoningbringing a number of facts together and constructing theories on the basis of these factsiiDeductive reasoningstarting with a theory and then coming up with logical statements based on that theoryiiiProjection into the futureivConquest of thoughtvHypotheticaldeductive reasoningability to systematically test possible solutions to a problem and arrive at an answered that can be defended and explainedeOperationsmental actionsthey allow individuals to do mentally what was done before physicallyVSymbols for SymbolsaCan use symbols to represent other symbolsbMakes adolescents thoughts more flexiblepowerful than a childscCapacity for abstract thinking complex thinking and metacoginitioniAbstract thinkingstrictly a mental concept or process ex Love friendship honoriiComplex thinkingmore likely to see things in greater complexity and perceive multiple aspects of a situation or ideas1Metaphor2Sarcasm3Satiremixes metaphor and sarcasm4Idealismproject self in futureiiiMetacoginitionability to think about ones own though processes1Can learn solve problems more efficiently
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