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PSYC 3082
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Chapter 13 Developmental Childhood and Cognitive DisordersPerspectives on Developmental DisordersNormal vs Abnormal Development Some things normal in adults may be abnormal in children and vice versaDevelopmental PsychopathologyoStudy of how disorders arise and change with timeoChildhood is associated with significant developmental changesoDisruption of early skills will likely disrupt development of later skillsDevelopmental DisordersoDiagnosed first in infancy childhood or adolescenceoAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHDoLearning disordersoAutism and Aspergers DisorderoMental retardationAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHDAn Overview Nature of ADHDoCentral featuresInattention hyperactivity and impulsivity must cause impairment or distress and must have a number of symptoms in order to qualify for ADHD oAssociated with behavioral cognitive social and academic problemsDSMIV and DSMIVTR Symptom ClustersoCluster 1Symptoms of inattention ono eye contact excessive day dreaming frequent carelesserrors in testing frequently lose or misplace items forgetful does not appear to hear what is saidoCluster 2Symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity clusterofidgety difficultly staying seated moves about excessively difficulty playing quietly impatientoEither cluster 1 or 2 must be present for a diagnosisosymptoms must be present prior to age 7definitely on examoUsed to have ADD and ADHD ADD is only cluster 1 ADHD is cluster 1 and 2NowADHD inattentive type cluster 1 only ADHD combined cluster 1 and 2 and ADHD hyperactive and impulsive type cluster 2 onlyoQ 1 this is on the exam twice but reworded Which of the following is needed to be diagnosed with ADHDoInattention or hyperactivityimpulsivity ADHDFacts and Statistics PrevalenceoOccurs in 412 of children who are 6 to 12 years of ageoSymptoms are usually present around age 3 or 4can diagnose this young but not treat with medicineo23 of children with ADHD have problems as adultso 13symptoms go awayo13get jobs that work with their symptomso13are caused difficulties in their liveso Over diagnosed but also under diagnosedGender Differences oBoys outnumber girls 4 to 1 Yay Yay YayCultural Factors oProbability of ADHD diagnosis is greatest in the United States ADHDBiological Contributions Genetic ContributionsoADHD runs in familiesoFamilial ADHD may involve deficits on chromosome 20Neurobiological ContributionsBrain Dysfunction and Damage oInactivity of the frontal cortex and basal ganglia impairment in higher order functioningoRight hemisphere malfunctionoAbnormal frontal lobe development and functioning delayed reaction in frontal lobe Lobe develops at a slower rateoYet to identify a precise neurobiological mechanism for ADHDThe Role of ToxinsoAllergens and food additives do not appear to cause ADHDoMaternal smoking increases risk of having a child with ADHDQ2 Which is true about the relation to food additives and ADHDResearchshowsthatthereisnorelationADHDPsychosocial ContributionsPsychosocial Factors Can Influence the Disorder ItselfoConstant negative feedback from teachers parents and peersoPeer rejection and resulting social isolationoSuch factors foster low selfimage Biological Treatment of ADHDGoal of Biological TreatmentsoTo reduce impulsivityhyperactivity and to improve attentionStimulant Medicationsstimulates the frontal cortexoReduce the core symptoms of ADHD in 6570 of casesoWork within ahouroExamples include Concerta Adderall most frequently prescribed Metadate Ritalin infrequently prescribed now Dexedrine etcoMedicine only good for 2 years then no difference at allQ 3 Ritalin is a type ofStimulantOther MedicationsoImipramine and Clonidine antihypertensive have some efficacyoStraterra inattentionBehavioral and Combined Treatment of ADHDBehavioral Treatmentonly if very mildoInvolve reinforcement programs oAim to increase appropriate behaviors and decrease inappropriate behaviorsoMay also involve parent trainingCombined BioPsychoSocial TreatmentsoAre highly recommendedmost effectiveoNonmedical treatments not nearly as effective if not combined with medicationLearning DisordersScope of Learning Disorders oProblems related to specific academic performance in reading mathematics andor writingoPerformance is substantially below what would be expectedoNOT mental retardationoEx 15 yr old boy with fs in all subjects in a regular classroom need to know his IQ to know his expected performanceReading DisorderoDiscrepancy between actual and expected reading achievementoReading is at a level significantly below that of a typical person of the same ageoProblem cannot be caused by sensory deficits eg poor visionMathematics DisorderoAchievement below expected performance in mathematics differences in actual and expected IQ and social upbringingDisorder of Written ExpressionoAchievement below expected performance in writing What is expectedogiven childs age educational level intelligence IQLearning DisordersSome Facts and StatisticsIncidence and Prevalence of Learning Disorderso1 to 3 incidence of learning disorders in the United StatesoPrevalence rate is 10 to 15 among school age childrenoReading difficulties are the most common of the learning disordersoAbout 32 of students with learning disabilities drop out of schooloVast majority are never diagnosed
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