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PSYC 3082 Exam 3

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PSYC 3082
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PSYC 3082EXAM 3Chapter 8 Eating and Sleep Disorderspg 285327I Major Types of Eating DisordersEX Hallmark feature of eating disorders Bulimia nervosa eating disorder involved episodes of uncontrolled excessive binge eating followed by compensatory actions to remove the food deliberate vomiting laxative abuse exercise Binge brief episode of uncontrolled excessive consumption usually of food or alcohol Binge characterized by bothEating in a discrete period of time within a 2 hour period an amount of food that is larger than most people would eat during similar circumstancesSense of lack of control over eating during the episode Compensatory BehaviorInappropriate attempts to compensate for eating prevent weight gain ex vomiting laxatives diuretics enemas fasting and excessive exercise Purging self induced vomiting or use of laxatives diuretics Anorexia nervosa eating disorder characterized by recurrent food refusal leading to dangerously low body weight Bingeeating disorder pattern of eating involved distress inducing binges not followed by purging behaviors being considered as a new DSM diagnostic category OverviewTwo major types of DSMIVTR eating disorders Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosaSevere disruptions in eating behaviorExtreme fear and apprehension about gaining weightStrong sociocultural origins westernized views Other subtypes include binge eating disorderObesity a growing epidemic A Bulimia Disorder1 Clinical Descriptionobesity excess of body fat resulting in a body mass index BMI of 30 or morePurging techniques in the eating disorder bulimia nervosa the selfinduced vomiting or laxative abuse used to compensate for excessive food ingestionRecurrent bingesRecurrent compensatory behavior Both occur on average at least 2 times per week for at least 3 months Selfevaluation based excessively on weight and body shapeDoesnt occur exclusively during episodes of ANTypes Purging subtype and nonpurging subtype Purging Subtype most commonNonpurging Subtype about 13 of those with BN2 Medical Consequences Associated Medical Features Most are within 10 of normal body weight behaviors not successful in weight lossSalivary gland enlargement caused by repeated vomiting chubby faceErosion of dental enamelElectrolyte imbalance can lead to potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmia and renal failureSeizures intestinal problems permanent colon damage calluses on fingers or hands3 Associated Psychological DisordersMost are overly concerned with body shape fear of gaining weight and have comorbid psychological disorders 4 Facts and Statistics Majority are female about 90 or moreOnset around 1619 years of ageLifetime prevalence is about 11 for females 01 for males 67 of college women suffer from bulimia Chronic if left untreated B Anorexia NervosaEX Hallmark feature of AN Refusal to maintain age and height appropriate weight 15 below expected weightIntense fear of weight gain or becoming fatDisturbance in perception of body size undue influence of weight shape on selfevaluation or denial of seriousness of current low body weight Amenorrhea absence of menses in postmenarche women can lead to infertilityTypes Restricting BingeEating Purging1 Clinical Description2 Medical Consequences Lanugo1PSYC 3082EXAM 3Cardiovascular problemsElectrolyte imbalancesSensitivity to coldDry skinBrittle hair and nailsDeath in extreme cases3 Associated Psychological Disorders Most show marked disturbance in body image Most are comorbid for other psychological disorders 4 Facts and Statistics Lifetime prevalence 06 Majority are female and Caucasian From middle to uppermiddle class families Usually develops around age 13 or early adolescence More chronic and resistant to treatment than bulimia Cross cultural considerations Developmental considerations C Binge Eating DisorderEX Define Binge eating Currently in appendix of DSMIV but probably to appear in DSMVRecurrent episodes of binge eatingEpisodes associated with 3 or more of followingEating much more rapidly than normalEating until feel uncomfortably full Eating large amounts when not physically hungry Eating alone because embarrassed Feeling disgusted depressed or very guilty Marked distress regarding binge eating At least 2 time per week for 6 monthsNot associated with compensatory behaviors Associated FeaturesMany persons with bingeeating disorders are obeseConcerns about shape and weightOften older than those with BN and ANMore psychopathology vs nonbinging obese people Discuss role of food in familiesWas food used as a rewardWere children forced or encouraged to finish everything on plateIf child refused to finish or eat certain foods was punishment utilizedWhat is consequence of these various approaches to food that a family may adoptAre any approaches influential in development of eating disorders D Statistics1 Cross Cultural Considerations2 Developmental Considerations II Causes and Theories of Etiology of Eating Disorders EX Cultural considerations regarding eating disorders A Social Dimensions Being thinsuccess happiness Peer influencemore likely to use weight loss techniques if friends do Observational learning kids who watch parents will more likely do what parents do Familial influences observational learning and pressure children to be thin Media standards of ideal are increasingly difficult to achieve as people get bigger and ideals get smaller 1 Dietary Restraint 2 Family Influences B Biological DimensionsData from family and twin studies suggest genetic component unclear what is inherited however no adoption studies Eating is regulated by biological processes Low levels of serotonergic activity associated with binge eatingED can certainly lead to neurobiological abnormalities that could contribute to maintenance of disorders when food restricted we become preoccupied with itDieting in adolescents can lead to weight gain 2
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