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Test 2 Notes

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Louisiana State University
PSYC 3082

PTSD Posttraumatic Stress DisorderSymptoms Requires exposure to an event resulting in extreme fear helplessness or horrorPerson continues to reexperience the event eg memories nightmares flashbacks Avoidance of cues that serve as reminders of the traumatic event Emotional numbing and interpersonal problems are commonPhysiological hyperarousal PTSD diagnosis cannot be made earlier than 1 month posttraumaMarkedly interferes with ones ability to functionCombat and sexual assault are the most common traumasAbout 78 of the general population meets criteria for PTSDSubtypes and Associated Features of PTSDAcuteDuration of symptoms is 1 to 3 monthsChronicDuration of symptoms is more than 3 monthsDelayed onsetOnset of symptoms 6 months or more posttraumaHow is it similar to other anxiety disorders with regard to criteriaThose affected by both have a fear of events and feelings of helplessnessThey also avoid cues that trigger traumatic eventsWhat plays a role in the development of itPTSD is caused by the intensity of the trauma and ones reaction to itUncontrollability and unpredictability play a roleThe lack of social support posttrauma plays a role in the developmentDirect conditioning and observational training also play a role PTSD is treated by Cognitivebehavior therapies CBT which are highly effective and generally involve exposure to avoided stimuli as well as cognitive reprocessing Prolonged Exposure Cognitive Processing Therapy EMDROCD Obsessive Compulsive DisorderThe presence of either obsessions or compulsionsMost people with OCD are femaleAbout 26 of the general population meet criteria for OCD in their lifetimeThe onset is typically in early adolescence or childhoodIts cause parallels other anxiety disordersIt is caused by early life experienced and learning that some thoughts are dangerousunacceptable Another cause is thoughtaction fusion which is the tendency to view the thoughts as similar to the action ObsessionsCompulsions ObsessionsIntrusive and nonsensical thoughts images or urges that one tries to resist or eliminateCompulsionsThoughts or actions to suppress the thoughts and provide reliefCriteria be able to put them to use in a case 1Either obsessions or compulsions2At some point during the course of the disorder the person has recognized that the obsessions or compulsions are excessive and unreasonable3The obsessions or compulsions cause marked distress are timeconsuming take more than one hour a day or significantly interfere with the persons normal routine occupational or academic functioning or usual social activities or relationships with others4If another Axis I disorder is present the content of the obsessions or compulsions is not restricted to itRisks for the development ofAge OCD tends to develop in late adolescence or early adulthood However it can begin as early as preschool age and as late as age 40Genetic Factors Research suggests that genes may play a role in the development of OCD in some cases OCD tends to run in families A person who has OCD has a 25 chance of having a blood relative who has itPresence of Other Mental or Neurologic Conditions OCD often occurs in people who have other anxiety disordersdepressionTourette syndromeattentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder ADHDsubstance abuse eating disorders and certain personality disorders Stress OCD symptoms often occur during stress from major life changes such as loss of a loved one divorce relationship difficulties problems in school or abusePregnancy and Postpartum OCD symptoms may worsen during and immediately after pregnancy In this case fluctuating hormones can trigger symptoms Postpartum OCD is characterized by disturbing thoughts and compulsions regarding the babys wellbeingTreatment approachesMedication Treatment of OCDClomipramine and other SSRIs seem to benefit up to 60 of patients Relapse is common with medication discontinuationPsychosurgery cingulotomy is used in extreme casesPsychological Treatment of OCDCognitivebehavioral therapy is most effective with OCDCBT involves exposure and response preventionCombining medication with CBT does not work as well as CBT aloneSomatization DisordersSomatization disorders are problems characterized by unusual physical symptoms that occur in the absence of a known physical illness and involve a degree of dissociationSome symptoms include impairment of a somatic system Soma Meaning Body Preoccupation with health andor body appearance and functioning is involved
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