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Chapter5 (got 96%)

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3083
Professor
All

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Psychology 3083
Chapter 5 Research in Psychotherapy
Abbreviations:
Pxs=problems
- Psychotherapy
has been a formal practice for a little over 100 years
for nearly 50 of those, was not empirically studied
1st studies conducted by Carl Rogers
Rogers began by recording/studying therapy sessions
psychotherapy research remains controversial
argument over how research needs to be conducted & then
used to guide practice
some say therapy not suited to systematic research
is very difficult to do
HOWEVER - era of “accountability”
(service providers asked 2 show evidence justifying
what they do)
those who pay the bill (health care agencies, government agencies) demand
accountability
Why Study Psychoth Empirically
- many practitioners say therapy is 2 hard 2 study
- say are plenty of case histories & testimonials that demonstrate effectiveness of
psychotherapy
are testimonials of therapists & clients who say they’ve observed that a given
form of psychotherapy works
- HOWEVER, case history/testimonials r unreliable & can’t serve as basis for systematic
conclusions.
Can testimonials alone be trusted?
Why are these not reliable?
1 reason - people tend 2 “see” what they expect 2 see.
EX
Therapist Perspective -
Psychoanalysts encourage clients 2 talk about early childhood
when change occurs, attribute change 2 reviewing
early childhood.
Cognitive therapists have clients talk about dysfunctional cognitions & then
attribute change 2 that
Client Perspective -
Change experiences – if client gains insight, they feel
transformed/changed
- are powerful/emotional experiences
- as reference, think of religious conversion experiences
- powerful experiences/people report feeling
changed/healed of problems
- text says power of suggestion @ play
people report change/being healed BUT problems often remain
- - - ex of schizophrenic, prayed over, stop taking meds, etc.
- same thing could happen w/therapy
- Insights/explanations N2 problems help
especially , if they make ct’s experience seem sensible
--- even if not true/accurate, as long as gives person hope
EX
2
suppose John gains “insight” N therapy
he believes his lo self-esteem caused by
FA’s put-downs (doesn’t even matter if true)
Then he decides FA was screwed-up & decides
what FA said doesn’t really matter much OR
that he doesn’t have 2 put himself down b/c FA did
--- thus, therapeutic insight (though may be not even
accurate or true) was helpful
- THUS, regarding
whether therapy works
what in therapy works or
what r the cause of psycho problems r
IS DIFFICULT 2 draw reliable conclusions from th/ct’s
reported experiences
- Therapy sessions r important sources of ideas/hypothesis, BUT
alone they don’t provide reliable evidence as 2 what
works & why
- 2 disc what really works & why
we need more systematic, observational processes - - -
scientific method
- Currrently, majority opinion is psychoth can B studied
using experimental/scientific method
Methods in Psychoth Research
- # of diff research strategies R used N psychoth research
- Traditionally, research has been quantitative
Quantitative research
devising way 2 measure variables researcher, quantifying in order to measure and
analyzing it statistically and making since of it.
3

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Description
Psychology 3083Chapter 5 Research in PsychotherapyAbbreviationsPxsproblems Psychotherapyhas been a formal practice for a little over 100 years for nearly 50 of those was not empirically studiedst 1 studies conducted by Carl Rogers Rogers began by recordingstudying therapy sessionspsychotherapy research remains controversialargument over how research needs to be conductedthenused to guide practicesome say therapy not suited to systematic research is very difficult to doHOWEVERera of accountability service providers asked 2 show evidence justifyingwhat they do those who pay the bill health care agencies government agencies demand accountability Why Study Psychoth Empirically many practitioners say therapy is 2 hard 2 study say are plenty of case historiestestimonials that demonstrate effectiveness ofpsychotherapyare testimonials of therapistsclients who say theyve observed that a given form ofpsychotherapy works HOWEVER case historytestimonials r unreliablecant serve as basis for systematic conclusions Can testimonials alone be trustedWhy are these not reliable 1 reasonpeople tend 2 see what they expect 2 seeEXTherapist PerspectivePsychoanalysts encourage clients 2 talk about early childhood when change occurs attribute change 2 reviewingearly childhoodCognitive therapists have clients talk about dysfunctional cognitionsthen attribute change 2 that Client Perspective Change experiencesif client gains insight they feeltransformedchanged are powerfulemotional experiencesas reference think ofreligious conversion experiences powerful experiencespeople report feeling changedhealed of problemstext says power of suggestionplaypeoplereport changebeing healed BUT problems often remainex of schizophrenic prayed over stop taking meds etcsame thing could happen wtherapyInsightsexplanations N2 problems helpespeciallyif they make cts experience seem sensibleeven if not trueaccurate as long as gives person hopeEX 2
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