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PSYC3083 (got 96%)

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3083
Professor
All

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PSYC3082 04/10/2013
DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) – inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
Cluster 1=inattention, cluster 2=hyperactivity and impulsivity
Need 1 OR 2 for diagnosis*
Symptoms MUST be present prior to age seven*
Occurs in ~8% of children aged 6-12
Usually symptoms present at ¾
2/3 children have problems as adults
boys outnumber girls 4:1
Probability of ADHD diagnosis is greatest in US
Most over diagnosed disorder in childhood, also undiagnosed particularly in cluster one
Hard to diagnose inattention because it is not disruptive
ADHD Inattentive Type – previously called ADD, only symptoms of inattention present
Hyperactive-Impulsive Type – only have cluster 2 symptoms
Most often have symptoms of both clusters – Combined Type
Runs in families
Inactivity of the frontal cortex*
Abnormal, delayed frontal lobe development
Medication is most common treatment – reduces core symptoms of ADHD in 70% of cases
Treated with stimulants (Adderall, Ritalin, etc.), stimulates blood flow/activity in the frontal cortex
Bio-psycho-social treatments are recommended
Learning Disorders – academic abilities and performance are significantly below what is expected (typically
in reading, math, and writing)
Determine expected ability by assessing their intelligence and exposure to school
~5% suffer from a learning disorder, most go unidentified
Reading difficulties are most common
~32% drop out of school
having ADHD puts one at risk for developing a learning disorder
required to provide academic interventions – early intervention improves outcomes
Reading Disorder – discrepancy between actual and expected reading achievement; significantly
below that of a typical person of the same age
CANNOT be caused by sensory deficits (vision problems)
Mathematics Disorder – achievement below expected performance in mathematics
Disorder of Written Expression – cannot express thoughts in writing
Pervasive Developmental Disorders – problems with language, socialization, and cognition (pervasive
means the problems span the person’s entire life)
Autism – significant impairment in social interactions and communication
Onset prior to age 3
3 central features:
1) Problems in socialization/social function
poor eye contact, little interest in relationships
lack of enjoyment in activities
poor use of nonverbal behaviors
lack of emotional reciprocity
2) Problems in communication
50% never acquire useful speech
unusual speech – echolalia
poor ability to communicate
lack of make-believe or spontaneous play
3) Restricted patterns of behavior, interests, and activity
patterns of interest are restricted (abnormally so)
inflexible routines/rituals
stereotyped motor movements/mannerisms
preoccupation with parts of objects
50% have severe mental retardation
25% mild/moderate IQ range
substantially reduced cerebellum size
poorly understood
can range from mild to extremely severe
Asperger’s Disorder – problems in socialization and social function
Restricted patterns of behavior, interests, and activities; speech is intact, communication problems are less
severe
Clusters 1 and 3, no problems in cluster 2
Autism spectrum disorders are treatable, not curable

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Description
PSYC308204102013DEVELOPMENTALDISORDERSADHDAttentionDeficitHyperactivityDisorderinattentionhyperactivityandimpulsivityCluster1inattentioncluster2hyperactivityandimpulsivityNeed1OR2fordiagnosisSymptomsMUSTbepresentpriortoagesevenOccursin8ofchildrenaged612Usuallysymptomspresentat23childrenhaveproblemsasadultsboysoutnumbergirls41ProbabilityofADHDdiagnosisisgreatestinUSMostoverdiagnoseddisorderinchildhoodalsoundiagnosedparticularlyinclusteroneHardtodiagnoseinattentionbecauseitisnotdisruptiveADHDInattentiveTypepreviouslycalledADDonlysymptomsofinattentionpresentHyperactiveImpulsiveTypeonlyhavecluster2symptomsMostoftenhavesymptomsofbothclustersCombinedTypeRunsinfamiliesInactivityofthefrontalcortexAbnormaldelayedfrontallobedevelopmentMedicationismostcommontreatmentreducescoresymptomsofADHDin70ofcasesTreatedwithstimulantsAdderallRitalinetcstimulatesbloodflowactivityinthefrontalcortex
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