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Psyc 3083 Notes (97% in the course

14 Pages
Winter 2013

Course Code
PSYC 3083

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Monday Sept. 9. 2013
Beginning from slide 13
-As Humans we have high aggression. There are certain ways you can express aggression and get
rewarded for it. A sport is one of the ways. Becoming a policeman or a boxer is another example.
-Why do we have aggression?- Aggression helps us get things done. We need aggression.
-Lying, stealing, killing, cheating genetically elected 4 traits. It runs into like superego and conscious and
that is what creates conflict.
Compromise formation- complex solution to a complex involving aggression
-compromise formation involving libido?
is becoming a prostitute one? Well most prostitutes find it disgusting. Many of them were sexually abused
as a child and now they are the ones who are able to do the abusing to the men. They don’t get any sexual
pleasure out of prostituting.
Uncovering Unconscious thoughts:
The therapeutic technique uses free association and analysis of defenses and transferences
-Disclaimer to patients: Everything we do or say in here will be keep confidential unless I think your going to
hurt yourself or someone else or unless there is child abuse involved and I have to do something to protect
your or others.
-Patients will begin to talk and have free association to discuss whatever they choose to do. People have a
lot to say. Then you want to do ego defense therapy which leads to finding out the defense mechanisms of
the patient.
Denial- refusing to accept the consequences that comes along with it engaging in the behavior. Deny
things can happen at the unconscious level.
Self-Injurious Behavior- doing home to yourself
Rationalization- giving a more socially acceptable reason for what you are doing
Regression- sort of like denial, stick it back down into your unconscious.
Intellectualization- deal with something at an intellectual level and you don’t deal with it at an emotion
Medical Student example: telling her friend about such a serious medical example that her baby
had. She was dealing with it like a medical profession and not like a mother which was her defense. Her
mind choose to deal with is on an intellectual level not an emotion level.
Is Psychologist job to remove defenses? It depends. You have to respect the person’s
defenses. If the defenses are discussed in therapy that’s because the defenses are getting in the person’s
way. You should light on it and help them understand why they have the defenses. You are defending
yourself against an anxiety. If its not harmful to the patient then you want to shine a light on the defenses.
You need them to see that they have a defense. You need to help patients identify what defenses are
getting in their way. Its unconscious. Once you are aware of it then technically its not a defense
mechanisms because its conscious. There is an unlimited number of defense mechanisms.
Example: Don Juan- dating different way at one time. Why is it a defense mechanisms?—defending
intimacy, and emotional anxiety, low self-esteem. He could unconsciously be gay and cant come out.
Transference: you are transferring a way of someone of the past to someone who reminds you of the
past. Transfer inappropriately things from someone in the past to someone in the present. It happens to
everyone. It’s a way of generalizing.
Example: a woman at therapist. Therapist says something and the patients says you are always
criticizing me. Its inappropriately happening. The patient is seeing something in the therapist that reminds
her of someone else. There is also transgender transference. We look for those things in patients and think
there is a transference.
Example: patient had a transference with her boss. She looked for pairs of women to gang up on her like
her former boss did. It gets her all flared up and angry. This is a transference.
Counter-transference- When a therapist has a transference.
1.) when the patient reminds you as someone else
2.) respond inappropriately to a patient because you have unresolved issues about yourself.
You shouldn’t tell your patient what to do. Your job is to help the patient
understand themselves well enough to make their own decisions.
In Treatment Video: ??????
They are unequally yoked
Raining/stormy weather-, perfect for setting the scene, particularly the sad scenes
Paul called his therapist at the end, it was a transference
Behavioral Therapy: the most scientifically sound therapy we have, well grounded. Very effective but
it has some limits in terms of behavior. It can change complex behaviors.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy: was developed by Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck. They were originally
trained in psychoanalysis and moved to CBT because they felt that psychoanalysis takes too long and CBT
took less time. They developed a new approach. CBT helps people discover dysfunctional thoughts and
irrational thoughts.
Particularly helpful with depression and anxiety disorders.
People have problems because of irrational thoughts like extreme negative self esteem , negative thoughts
about the future (hopeless), and extreme pessimism.
Humanistic approach: founder was Carl Rogers. it is very influential but not a lot of people practice
this approach. The big three that are practiced are Psychodynamic, Behavior Therapy, and Cognitive
Behavior Therapy.
What makes for good therapy? Carl Rogers said three things a therapist must have in order for
therapy to work
1.) congruence- genuineness, honesty with the client. Something is consistent, talk about things with
your client. Paul was honest and congruent with his client’s. Especially when he was pushed in the corner.
2.) empathy- the ability to feel what the client feels. Its not critical but it helps. If you have never been
through what the client has been through is hard to understand. You can have similar experiences. It would
be hard to understand your patient who has had a panic attack. More life experiences the more empathy
you can have.
3.) respect- acceptance, unconditional positive regard. Deserving of your best work. You are able to see
your patient as deserving of respect. Some patients aren’t likeable and psych is able to understand and
respect their client.
DSM/ICD/Prescription Privileges
Clinical psychologist are now able to prescribe medication in Guam, New Mexico and Louisiana. They
prescribe over 80% of psychotropic drugs. You can also send them to medical psychiatrist.
Example: Lady who told him about bragging about being able to prescribe medicine because
psychologist aren’t real doctors: how would you respond to her? Change is hard for a lot of
What works?
Lambert and Hubble agreed that 40% of therapy outcome is related to factors in the client’s life that cause
or facilitate change (getting a better job, faith, supportive social network)
30% of therapy outcome is related to therapist characteristics, such as empathy, warmth, acceptance.
Therapeutic alliance- you cant keep a patient in therapy if you do not build a
therapeutic alliance. Patients belief that they can trust you and you will work hard
on their behalf.
15% due to expectancy- when you go to any doctor, you expect something good to happen, or you to get
better, 15% due to specific theoretic technique used.
Monday September 16, 2013
Beginning from slide 23

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