Cognitive Behavior Therapy: was developed by Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck. They were originally
trained in psychoanalysis and moved to CBT because they felt that psychoanalysis takes too long and CBT
took less time. They developed a new approach. CBT helps people discover dysfunctional thoughts and
Particularly helpful with depression and anxiety disorders.
People have problems because of irrational thoughts like extreme negative self esteem , negative thoughts
about the future (hopeless), and extreme pessimism.
Humanistic approach: founder was Carl Rogers. it is very influential but not a lot of people practice
this approach. The big three that are practiced are Psychodynamic, Behavior Therapy, and Cognitive
What makes for good therapy? Carl Rogers said three things a therapist must have in order for
therapy to work
1.) congruence- genuineness, honesty with the client. Something is consistent, talk about things with
your client. Paul was honest and congruent with his client’s. Especially when he was pushed in the corner.
2.) empathy- the ability to feel what the client feels. Its not critical but it helps. If you have never been
through what the client has been through is hard to understand. You can have similar experiences. It would
be hard to understand your patient who has had a panic attack. More life experiences the more empathy
you can have.
3.) respect- acceptance, unconditional positive regard. Deserving of your best work. You are able to see
your patient as deserving of respect. Some patients aren’t likeable and psych is able to understand and
respect their client.
Clinical psychologist are now able to prescribe medication in Guam, New Mexico and Louisiana. They
prescribe over 80% of psychotropic drugs. You can also send them to medical psychiatrist.
Example: Lady who told him about bragging about being able to prescribe medicine because
psychologist aren’t real doctors: how would you respond to her? Change is hard for a lot of
Lambert and Hubble agreed that 40% of therapy outcome is related to factors in the client’s life that cause
or facilitate change (getting a better job, faith, supportive social network)
30% of therapy outcome is related to therapist characteristics, such as empathy, warmth, acceptance.
Therapeutic alliance- you cant keep a patient in therapy if you do not build a
therapeutic alliance. Patients belief that they can trust you and you will work hard
on their behalf.
15% due to expectancy- when you go to any doctor, you expect something good to happen, or you to get
better, 15% due to specific theoretic technique used.
Monday September 16, 2013
Beginning from slide 23