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Louisiana State University
PSYC 4008

psychology 4008120Historiography the study of writing histories theoretical constructs as to what is a good way to write things Historians want to avoid biasPresentism vs HistoricismPresentism means that we know now more than we have ever known Historic point of view looks at these events within the context of the past An internal history is one in which the focus is within one particular discipline An external view is more the approach that things that have happened within this discipline can be explained by things outside the disciplinePersonalistic looks at major shaping figures and identifies what they didie we would not have had an evolutionary theory without Charles DarwinNaturalistic These outside occurrenceszeitgeist or within time historyDeterminism everything is cause by something nothing is spontaneousSo to explain psychological stuff we look for the causesIndeterminist someone who believes that everything is free willEverything you do is a matter of choiceEmpiricism bases a system of knowledge on experienceWe do not believe something unless we see itRationalism our experiences are frequently falseThey say that our senses are easily fooledWe introduce errors and every one of our experiences is different from other peopleSo the way to get at truth is not to rely on experience rather to use scientific reasoningInductivism eventually you will be able to observe some sort of commonalityDeductive getting to the individual instance beginning from the topMechanism any sort of psychological thing is caused by basic natural physical eventsVital not controlled by physical ie the soulwe study the soulmind and believe it plays an important roleMonism they believe that there is no mind and body there is only one thingmind and body are the same thingMaterialistic monism there is only bodyPsychology today tends to be materialistic monistic this is because psychology wants to be considered a natural sciencewe want to be able to treat diseases with medicine Mentalist monists would make the argument that everything is subjectiveOnly the mind existsDualism both mental and physical existwe have bodies and mental experiences not explainable by physicalNaturalism psychology is just another aspect of natureSupernaturalism there is something out there that transcends standard natural realmsThe Church dominates this period of timeThis time period is known as the Middle Ages or the Medieval times500 ad 1500 adDuring the Middle Ages in the West standard citizens were illiterate serfs who never traveledEven most of the princes or kings were illiterateReading writing was preserved in the Church LatinThe local languages were not really spoken or writtenFirst half of the Middle AgesDark Ages because the light of thinking or independent thought of the West was put out dark dumbEastern cultures were flourishing but the Western world was focused on dominationinventions include wheelbarrowThe Dark Ages for us were a time of intellectual stagnationMiddle Ages were a superstitious time and there were actually regressions in scienceNext period is the Renaissancefollowed by the Enlightenment us today modern erabeginning of the Renaissance 1450 with the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg 14001468During the Renaissance people are becoming increasingly literateCenter of learning developed ie Cathedrals universitiesending of the Renaissance Galileo Galilei 15641642 with his book of science regarding planets Dialog Concerning Two Chief Worlds Systems Andreas Vesalius 15141564 and his work on anatomy in his book De Fabrica Corporis Humanithe fabric of the human bodyPrior to this it was thought that all that we would ever know about the body was already knownVesalius said in his books that the leading authority from the Roman age Gaelin was wrong about anatomyThe second work that challenged prior thought was by Nicolaus CopernicusDe Revolutions Orbium Coelestiumthe revolutions of the heavenly spheres In this book he suggests the Heliocentric theoryThat the sun is at the center vs Earth being the centerWe revolve around the sunHe sent this book off to be published and dedicated it to the Pope to escape condemnationBut later his position was challenged by the church and excommunicatedHis book was banned until the 1800s 203Question is what is the basis of truthIn France the answer was truthRationalism was how you get at truthPoint further established by Rene DescartesOpposing view was by Englishman Thomas HobbesHe said that certain truth is found via experiences Scientific Rev begins with the mark of Isaac NewtonNewtons quantitative worldview was the way of thinking16421727His book Philosophie Naturalis Principia Mathermatica Created with inventing Calculus person who established modern physicsThings will remain as the word of Newton all the way until EinsteinHumans began to try and describe human nature mathematicallyHe was an alchemist and had his own lab in his backyardHe wrote a lot on alchemyindicating some belief in the supernaturalSir Francis Bacon 15611629 he believed that the system of knowledge as it existed was extremely flawedHe thought about maybe starting overLets improve it and find a better way to get to truthHe thought that the way to begin was to see things as they actually are and observe them without biasHe developed this notion of idols or things that prevent us from seeing what is actually thereBacon talks about the idol of the tribeThis is the notion that you and I belong to certain types of groups I am southern college educated etcBc I am part of there groups I will have their biasesThe way that we are flavors what we seeHe talks about the idol of the caveNotion is that although you and I are in the same tribe we may experience things differentlyWhat goes on in our cave may be diff from others Thirdly he talks of the idol of the theaterNotion is that people can put on a very convincing showAlthough they seem one way they may be anotherFourth he talks of the idol of the marketplaceNotion people tend to develop concepts and they go out into the marketplace or wherever and exchange their ideasSo his new approach was to start over after weeding out all these idolsHe would start with empiricism direct experience is what you can rely on He did not believe in the Heliocentric theory bc if you go out at night it sure looks like the stars are moving He also had a belief in practical applicationsYou could use concepts in physics and change the worldThe only way to improve with life is not only via faith also through practical applications of scienceRene Descartes 15961650 Credited with establishing modern rationalismHe had a very mechanistic worldviewThe world out there operated by standard physical mechanicsHe was a dualist mindbody philosopherRationalism according to DescartesHis observations on a fly led to Cartesian planes which then led to geometry with algebra aka coordinate geometryMath was very interesting to himLater in his life he was very depressed and confused about the ways of the worldSo he began a process which led to the establishment of rationalismHe tried to make a list of the things that he was certain aboutThings that he had no doubt aboutHe eliminated from his list the things that he had doubt about ie anything experienced through the senses thus eliminating empiricismHe eliminated the existence of GodHe finally found something that you could not doubt the fact that he was thinkingI think therefore I amI think therefore I am Cogito Ergo SumCartesianReason is the only sure judge that is trueSo why cant we use rationalism as truth or a criterion to say that its trueHe wanted to integrate all knowledge by using a rationale approachA truth has two qualities that make it true Being clear absolutely vivid nothing about it is obscure and distinctit is not a compound not a blend a single factHe wanted to discover all the things that were trueThere were however some things that are clear and distinct but could not be experienced ie geometry like parallelThese types of truth are innateOne of these innate ideas is GodHe found God to be clear innate and distinctGod is perfect wont deceive us he gave us reason and our sense so if something appears to be in a certain way the basic validity of that is something we should experienceBut if you experience is contradicted by your reason then your reason should winHis most famous book Discourse on Method Automata a physical device that very complexCould you apply automata to the human bodyThe physical nature of humans led to the notion of animal spiritsHe tried to explain human nature using an entirely physical descriptionIn our brain there are cavitiesThese cavities are inhabited by animal spirits this thing that could
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