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PSYC 4008 Test 2

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PSYC 4008
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Summary of Chapter 3 The physiological context early research on the nervous systemHeroic Science in the Age of EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment was a period during the 18th and 19th centuries when great faith existed in the ability of science and human reason to produce truthful knowlsdge about he natuaral world Scientist were heroes considered to be the objective and value free and Newton was the prime exemplar science was thought to lead inevitably to progress through technological innovation n this context the belive that psychology could become scientific bega to take holdFunctioning of the Nervous SystemFrom the time of Descartes scientists had been interested in the nature of the simple reflex in the 18th century Whytt completed the first systematic studies showing conclusively that the spinal cord was sufficient for reflexes to occur Whytt also pointed out that stimulusresponse connections could develop through habit an idea similar to modern behaviorist accounts of conditioning oThe Vital and Other Involuntary Motions of Animals 1751 studied frogs to see that there are voluntary will of the brain need to be alive and involuntary spinal cord actions linked together by habit formation types of reflexesWhen Magendie severed the posterior root of a dogs spinal cord the affected area could move but as insensitive to stimulation when the anterior root was severed no movement occurred Magendie concluded that the posterior root controlled sensation while the anterior root controlled motor movements Bell made similar observations but was not as systematic as Magendie The distinction between the function of the two roots is now known as the BellMagendie law oMagendie published his work in a journal 11 years after Bell but he correctly figured out through experimentation what each root did and whyoBell wrote Idea of a New Anatomy of the Brain Submitted for the Observation of His Friendsclaiming that an experiment on a stunned rabbit showed that the posterior and anterior roots had different functions but both have some sensory and motor function and posterior connected to the cerebellum and anterior connected to the cerebrumDoctrine of the specific energies of nerves but credit was given to Johannes Mueller because he elaborated and developed more fullyJohannes Mueller wrote Handbook of Human Physiology 1840According to Mullers doctrine of the specific energies of nerves leading German physiologist for first half of the 19th centuryowe are directly aware of our nervous systems not the worldoeach of the basic sensory stems has nerve fibers designed for that specific sense
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