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Midterm

Test 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 4008
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
History of PsychologyTest 2David Hartley established associationism developed a motion of association in his book Observations on Man 1749 His views are based on physics of his day at his time Sir Isaac NewtonFrom Newtons book Principia MathematicaNewton relates the mind with the worldSensations experiences in now ideasmemories of sensationsVibrations and VibratiunclesVibratory motions in the brain are caused by sensationsOnce the stimulus is gone we are left with a diminished form of vibration a Vibraticules are associated with ideasNeither one of them says vibrations cause sensations and vibraticules create ideasAnother way of looking at it is like so sensations are the results of vibrations of the minute particles of the substance of the nerves to account for which he postulated with NewtonHe said that these vibrations leave behind them in the brain a tendency to fainter vibrations or vibratiuncles of a similar kind which correspond to ideas of sensationThus memory is accounted forVoluntary action is explained as the result of a firm connection between a motion and a sensation or idea and on the physical side between an ideal and a motory vibration He is a deterministPsychophysical ParallelismEvery time we have a sensation we have ideasThrough experience sensation and ideas become linkedIf you experience sensations ABC and D then you have ideas abc and d with continuityEventually these ideas will be linkedContiguity is the experiencing of events together Spatial Contiguity synchronized contiguityTemporal Contiguity successive contiguityWith both processes the result is an associationContiguity successive contiguitySimultaneous when things occur together in space and timeSuccessive when things occur in order of one anotherAfter the renaissance debates between empiricism and rationalismAssociationsm continues founded by HartleyJames Millthought of as someone who is the epitome of this associat ViewThe mind is really complex but at heart the mind is made up of smaller units simple ideas and they are put togetherInfo is out there you and I experience it as we live the mind takes it in and automatically puts it together and by the time we reach adulthood and we have a complex mindJames Mills view is sometimes referred to as simple compoundsBrick is a complex idea mortar is a complex ideaPut those together and youve got my idea of a wallJames MillIt is a passive view of mindJohn Stuart Mill 18061873He was the son of James and he was actually a bit smarter than his dadJohn Stuart Mill was a bit of a physicistNewton at this time had just shown that light could be broken up into colorsJohn Stuart Mill drew an analogy of the mind to thisPut two things together in mind the outcome may not be predictable from the partsMind is not just this big compound of things added upHe came up with the idea of mental chemistryThings can be very different that the smaller things that make it upImmauel Kant 17241804known for his epistemologyHe is also known for being a person who bridged the gap between empiricism and rationalismKant said that we use a little bit of bothHe was a little guy who looks emaciatedGrew up in KonigsbergDuring his entire life he never leftIn his schooling he was interested in philosophyHe became a tutor for rich kidsAfter awhile he supplemented his income by drawing up treatises on more scientific issuesHe wrote on geology meteorology etcHe later got a job at the university and he was average academiaHe was never married but did have several love affairsAcademic egghead bachelorHe was angered by Humes theories of cause and effectHe published a work that made him famous ka The Critique of Pure ReasonThe fame disrupted his daily routine and he did not like thisIn his book he discusses how you and I when we experience the world are actually doing two things one is gaining info things in themselves and two the actions the mind then performs on that infoThe mind acts on the info that we receive because we posses these innate mental abilities or categories of organizations ie forms in PlatoThese categories are mental functions that we have no choice but to perform on info that we are presented with because that is what the mind was designed to doOne of the categories he mentions is causalityHe even talks specifically about Humes example of the billiard ballsHe said Hume is right we dont directly experience cause and effect but you and I know causality exists because the mind informs us of the factAnother category is timeYou and I dont directly experience time but we organize all of our experiences according to thisYet another category like this is spaceWe may exepience indivudal objects yet space is something we cant see These categories are inherent in the mind and dont depend on experience to be acquiredTherefore these categories are considered to be a priori prior to experienceHe suggested three different classes of knowledge and info1 Synthetic knowledge a pulling together of conceptsex this sign is orangeIn that statement of fact two things are brought together that are noncontingentOrange and signthose two concepts have no relation that is necessaryHe sees this synthetic knowledge as a way for acquiring new knowledge in the worldStatements that can only occur after we have had the experience are a posteriori and this is rational 2 Analytic knowledge a type of truth derived from analyzing somethingThings that we determine based upon contingent relationshipsWe can analyze and come up with statements of truthEx I have a sibling who is a bachelorYou do not need to see that I have a brother who is a male and who is unmarriedYou dont have to have that person in the room because all of those concepts are derived from the words sibling and bachelorThese are statements that do not require experienceAnalytic statements are a prioriThey are analytic statements you can make before experience3 Synthetic a priori statements where noncontingent statements are brought together but the outcome is determined or fixedOnce the concepts are brought together we should know the outcome Ex I have four coins in one hand and five coins in the otherWhat is the totalNine coinsYou could not have come up with the answer if he had not told us that he had four in one and five in the otherYou could not reason your way to that answerReason alone does not suffice You cant come up with nine coins without cues from the environmentThe final step is an action of mindIt is
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