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Study Guide Exam 1

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PSYC 4030
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Thinking and Decision Making Study Guide Exam 1Achieving Goals LectureoWhat are the major components of selfregulation with respect to learning and achievementThe ability to set and achieve goals is a key to longterm successIncludesBeing able to wisely set goalsBeing able to monitor progress accuratelyBeing able to avoid obstacles or problemsolve around themBeing able to manage timeBeing able to learn from experience reflection and apply it in the futureRelated Concepts selfregulated learner metacognitionoWhat are common reasons people fail to achieve their goals What is Affective ForecastingA People often fail to sufficiently think about why they want to achieve their goals1 Better to set goals that reflect personal interests and values rather than for social pressure or because of expectations about what you should do2 Goals that are concordant with your interests and values are less likely to lead to internal conflict and are more likely to sustain extended effortB Difficulty predicting the future1Affective Forecasting Predicting how a future outcome will make you feeloA eg I will be very happy sad if I get X where x is win the lottery get married graduate from highschool get a divorceoB Finding is that people consistently mispredict how happy or unhappy they will feel as a resultoWhy do people make these errorsA Being in a different state hot or cold when predicting than experiencingB Because they focus on the outcome alone and dont consider other aspects of their lives that will very likely occur at the same time1 related to the Planning Fallacyoa Think things are going to take less time than they doC Failing to anticipate how quickly we will recover from negative outcomesD People structure their goals poorly1 Set too many goals2 Set goals that conflict with each otherE Problems with goal definition1 Goal is not specific enough2 Goal is too far away distal rather than nearby proximal3 Not enough time put into defining the goal and identifying obstacles to completionF People dont plan on a daily basis what they will do to advance toward their goalG People dont practice their new behavior until it becomes easier more automaticH People dont measure their progress or do so poorly1 Need an operational definition2 Dont leave yourself wiggle roomoWhat is mental simulation and how is it useful What is an implementation intention and why is it helpfulPeople dont think through the steps involved in accomplishing their goalMental Simulation You imagine going through the process of achieving the goalA Research suggests that imagining the process is much more helpful that simply imagining the product eg accepting the Olympic goldB Helpful because it forces you to think through how you will solve your problem and may help you anticipate problems and emotional reactionsPeople fail to develop specific action plans for HOW they will attain their goalsImplementation Intentions Specify when where and how something will be accomplishedo1 At 3pm today I will sit down at my desk and read Chapter 1Implementation intentions help to ensure persistence in the face of distraction and obstacleso1 Helps you remember to do the task because youve specified the cues beforehando2 Reduces working memory load because you wont have to make decisions on the flyo3 Helps to make behavior more automaticoHow do you make something a habit Why is constancy and moderation so important to achievement1 Habit comes from practiceA It takes less effort to do the same task over timeB People often dont consider this2 Work with constancy and moderationA Regular work toward your goal in bitesized chunksB Helps ensure regular progress toward goal without burnout
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