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Final Exam Study Guide

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Louisiana State University
PSYC 4030

Final Exam Study GuideAchieving Goals LectureWhat is affective forecasting What is an implementation intention and why is it helpfuloAffective forecasting is predicting how future outcomes will make you feel People consistently incorrectly predict how something will make them feeloImplementation intention specify when where and how something will be accomplished It helps to ensure persistence in the face of distraction and obstaclesDistinguish between a growth mindset and a fixed mindset Can you change a persons mindset and if so how What might be the longterm consequences of adopting each mindsetoGrowth mindset means that you see intelligence as malleablesomething you can get better at The goal is to increase competenceoFixed mindset means that you see intelligence as fixedyou either have it or you dont The goal is to gain positive evaluation and avoid negative judgments about your competenceoGrowth mindset consequences include the tendency to choose more challenging tasks with increased persistencepeople are willing to risk looking foolish in order to acquire skillsoFixed mindset consequences include the tendency to select easier goals that show competence with decreased persistence that may lead to a pattern of avoidanceLearning Principles LectureWhat are the characteristics of working memory eg its duration capacity What things can you do to get around the limitations of working memoryoIf the information in the working memory isnt kept active by rehearsal its lost quickly 72 chunksoTo get around the limitations of working memory you should chunk information into meaningful units make information automatic and use artifacts writing drawing computer useWith respect to learning what is meant by the rich get richeroThe rich get richer means what you know affects how you learn The more you know about something the easier it is to learn new information about itWhat is the key variable for practice that affects how long a memory is retainedoFrequent quizzing promotes long lasting memory and is helpful for reminding yourself of information1What is the testing effect In what ways does retrieval practice help you learnoThe testing effect involves recalling information and receiving feedback oRetrieval practice suggests that errors provide feedback It shows you what you actually know rather than what you think you knowWhat is meant by learning thrives on failureoLearning thrives on failure means that we all make mistakes but whether or not we learn from them is what mattersGaining Expertise LectureHow long does it typically take to acquire expertise According to ScardamaliaBereiter 1993 how do you become an expert versus an experienced nonexpertoIt takes 10000 hours of practice or about 10 years to attain high levels of expertiseoHow to become an expert Progressive problem solving take on increasingly challenging problems that increase expertise redefine the tasks in new and more complex ways learn new skillsoNonexpert problem reduction continue on the original problem task until it gets easier and easierWhat are the characteristics of deliberate practice Ericsson and what is its relation to expertiseoDeliberate practice is an activity specifically intended to improve performanceFocused just beyond current level of performance effortful and attention demanding repeated frequently over time receive feedback about performanceoAn expert is someone who consistently achieves very high levels of performance in domainMindBrain I VideosRamachandran textWhat is blindsight What are the implications of blindsight for the function of conscious awarenessoBlindsight describes the ability to detect things but not to be aware of themoThe implications of blindsight involve being swamped by visual information unable to focus on the world around us2
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