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4030 Final Study Guide

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Louisiana State University
PSYC 4030

Secrets of the Psychics VideoHow did James Randi demonstrate to the college students that they could be fooled by individualized horoscopesoJames Randi demonstrated that horoscopes fooled people by having general situations for everyone that could be true He proved this by giving horoscopes to each individual in a college class Then after reading the horoscope he asked who the horoscope applied to After several students raised their hand he asked people to pass the horoscopes around and it turns out all of the horoscopes were the same This proved that people were fooled by the general sayings that the horoscope provided What did Randi demonstrate about how psychic surgery could be performed What did Randi point out what was wrong with the design of previous parapsychology experiments carried out by the Russian scientists oRandi pointed out that the scientists had a confirmation bias going in to the experiment They figured that their observation was not objective and cannot measure through electrochemical impulses They did not do a doubleblind study which was neededDM5What kinds of group biases have parallels with individual biasesWhat are group polarization effectsoPushed out to the extremes If you look at preexisting attitude then discussing it with other likeminded people tends to make your view even more extreme in that direction What is the general finding with respect to group vs individual performanceoGroups perform better than average individuals particularly if group leader encourages everyone to contributeoThe best members performance typically exceeds that of the group oNominal group people who individually came up with ideas and you pool those ideas What is overconfidence Do we always become more accurate as we learn more informationoOverestimating the accuracy of ones judgmentsoIn other words the discrepancy between true accuracy and selfestimated accuracy of ones judgments When confidence matches accuracy a person is said to be wellcalibrated oAs we learn more we become more confident but not necessarily more correctWhen is overconfidence in judgment typically found What factor appears to be especially important with respect to good calibration oBetween 1040 accuracy overconfidence is a common occurrence oOverconfidence is greatest when accuracy is near chance levels 50oBeyond 80 accuracy people sometimes become underconfident oCan be overcome through constant feedback and selfcorrection but not through monetary incentives to perform well What is the Pygmalion effect How can racial stereotypes become selffulfilling How can you fix selffulfilling propheciesoPygmalion effect False conceptions that ultimately become true because they cause behavioral changesoRacial stereotypes can become selffulfilling Black applicants received shorter interviews there were more speech errors by interviewer and interviewer sat further away oFrame questions in a way that encourages disconfirming information Encourage people to see that confirming questions are not socially acceptable eg indicative of bias Describe the major behavioral trapsoTime Delay Traps Shortterm gratification leads to longterm consequencesKey problem of selfregulation short vs longterm
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