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Psyc 4030 Study Guide 2

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Louisiana State University
PSYC 4030

Psyc 4030Exam 2 Study Guide Problem Solving Lecture What are the components of the IDEAL problem solving framework Identify the problem define and represent the problem explore possible strategies act on the strategies and look back and evaluate resultsHow does the two trains problem highlight the importance of problem representation What are set effects and how was this demonstrated in Luchins 1942 water jug problemUsing three jugs how can you use them to get a desired quantity one group solves all ten problem second group only does the last five problems the first group got used to doing it a certain way and even if there is an easier way to solve the problem they continued to use the difficult way problem 8 could not be solved the old way so 88 got it wrong people who only did the last five did better 95 got the problem right called the set affect which is people are biased by their experience to prefer similar strategiesand people ignore easier ways to solve problemsWhat is functional fixedness Representing objects in terms of their typical use and not seeing novel usesanother example of rigidity in problem solving ex MacGyver always trying to use what is available to solve problems What are the components of the Synectics method R Mathews of group problem solving 1 Headline brief summary of the problem 2 Idea and springboard generationIdeas for solving the problem Springboards I wish 3 Select a packageof ideas 4 Client selects ideas from those available 4 List pros and cons of selected package client first then group 5 Build to overcome cons while preserving pros 6 Decision about package plan 7Accept and actCognition MemoryThinking What are the 3 systems that make up LTM according to Tulving1 Episodic specific events and experiences have a quality of reexperiencing taste smells sounds 2 Semantic general knowledge of world facts 3 Procedural how to perform an actionWhat is the difference between availability and accessibilityAvailable information in memory it is there somewhere Accessible can access information at particular point in time if you are able to retrieve he informationDistinguish between the major types of memory tests on the basis of the cues that are provided to participants 1 Recognition test is giving info back to you and info you different then ask you if the info was old or new more specific cues 2 Cued recall give you back some info you studied and you have to provide the rest ex using flashcards 3 Free recall give you a list of words stop and say recall all the wordsless specific cuesWhat are the characteristics of STMWorking memory What components make up Baddeleys model Used for encoding retrieving and processing info from LTM Two kinds of processes used in STM maintenance rehearsal repeat over and over to memorize elaborative rehearsal combine new information with old info from LTM limited capacity 7or2 chunks of info info can be lost within 2030 seconds if not rehearsed generally corresponds to conscious awarenessPhonological loop verbal acoustic info Visuospatial sketchpad visual special info Central executive manage the use of info decisionmaking component Episodic buffer store multidimensional info What are the implications of the ShivFedorikhin 1999 study Give one person a 2 digit number and one a 7 digit number people start talking to them and make them make a decision whether they want chocolate cake or a fruit cup Person with the higher memory load will more likely choose cake because high WM load makes it harder to resist temptation selfcontrolWhat are proactive and retroactive interference How are these effects tested Proactive earlier learning interferes with later learning Retroactive later learning interferes with earlier learningWhat is reconsolidation and what are its implications for memory Researchers have long assumed that once a memory trace was in a longerterm state it could no longer be made unstable However recent research called this into question Can previously consolidated memories be made unstable again through reactivation of the memory trace Yes look at rat exampleIn what way is remembering constructiveHow is our memory different from a tape recorderMemory is Memory does not involve a simple reduction of a prior experienceconstructive pull in bits and pieces to forma whole memoryHow do we make sourcemonitoring judgmentsWhat is a source monitoring error Source mentoring is a set of processes that attribute where did this memory knowledge come from Memory does not come with a source attached to it instead we have a decision process about where the information came fromWhat is encoding specificityWhat type of studies provides good evidence for this hypothesis A cue will be most effective if it was specifically encoded with the toberemembered information If the cue was present at encoding it will make a better cue at retrieval time Critical thing the match or overlap ex GoddenBaddeley scuba diving study and Smith basement studyDescribe the effect of changing context between encoding and retrieval Encoding is the process of taking in information and putting it into a storage format code Retrieval is the process of bringing back information that has been stored in memoryWhat is the difference between explicit and implicit memory direct and indirect tests Implicit indirect test instructions are to complete a task not specifically to
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