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Cumulative Study Guide

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Louisiana State University
PSYC 4030

Psyc4030CumulativeStudyGuideAchieving Goals Lecture1What is affective forecasting Affective forecasting predicting how a future outcome will make you feeloMost ppl consistently mispredict how happy or unhappy they will feel as a result2What is an implementation intention and why is it helpfulImplementation intention specify when where and how something will be accomplished at 3pm today I will sit down at my desk and read chapter 1Helps to ensure persistence in the face of distraction and obstaclesoHelps you remember to do the task because youve specified the cues beforehandoReduces working memory load because you wont have to make decisions on the flyoHelps to make behavior more automatic3Distinguish between a learning goal orientation and a performance goal orientation Can you change this orientation What might be the longterm consequences of adopting each orientationPerformance Goal OrientationoGoal gain positive evaluation and avoid negative judgments about your competenceoSee intelligence or specific ability as fixedYou have it or you dontWhen I do poorly I dont have itoConsequencesTend to select easier goals to show their competenceLes likely to persist when doing poorlyMay lead to a pattern of avoidanceLearning Goal OrientationoGoal to increase competence masteryorientedoSee intelligence or specific ability as malleableoConsequencesTend to choose more challenging tasks that will extend their competenceIncreased persistencesees difficulty as a cue to increase effort or to analyze and vary their strategiesWilling to risk looking sillyignorant in order to acquire skills and knowledgeLearning Principles Lecture4What are the characteristics of working memory eg its duration capacityIf not kept active by rehersal info is lost quickly from working memoryWM can hold only so much info capacity 72 chunksUsed in reading to tie ideas togetherUsed in math to mentally solve problemsPsyc4030CumulativeStudyGuide5What things can you do to get around the limitations of working memory3 major ways to overcome limitations of WMoChunking info into meaningful unitsThe more items you can chunk together the more room you candevote to planning problemsolving drawing connection etcoMake it AutomaticControlled processesslow takes up capacityAutomatic processingfast takes limited or no capacityoUsing Artifacts takes info our of your headWriting drawing computer use etc 6With respect to learning what is meant by the rich get richerThe more you know ab something the easier it is to learn new info about itFacts are best learned and retained when there is a meaningful connection to what is already knownGoal of learning is to build unified knowledge about an area NOT isolated factsoMajor conceptsMake sure you take advantage of what you already knowoElaboration deliberately connecting info you are trying to learn to info you already know7What is the key variable for practice that affects how long a memory is retainedDistribution of practice is more important than the amount of practiceoMemory is more enduring when practice is spaced outCramming has modest effects in the shortterm but info is quickly forgotten8What is the testing effect In what ways does retrieval practice help you learnTesting Effect Recalling info and receiving feedback is much more effective for retention than simply restudying infoFrequent informal quizzes can be helpful tool for reminding oneself of info in a way that will promote longlasting memorySpacing effect applies here toooConsider testing yourself over longer periods of time than usualAdvantagesoErrors can provide feedback be reflective ab errorsoShows what you actually know rather than what you think you know9What is meant by learning thrives on failureWe all make errors try and learn from themImportant to be reflective ab themoWhat is the source of the errorTreat errors as opportunity for learning
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