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Final Exam Study Guide Part 3

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PSYC 4030
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Helping Doctors and Patients Make Sense of Health StatisticsWhat is collective statistical illiteracy p 54 What are the 3 main points in this monograph p 54Collective statistical illiteracy is all about how society as a whole is insufficiently taught how to think in a statistical manner and how it affects daily decisionmaking skills based on statistical probabilitiesThe first point is that patients physicians and politicians are not immune to collective statistical illiteracy based on The Contraceptive Pill ScareThe second point is that it is these illiteracy problems are caused by nontransparent framing that can be either intentional or unintentionalThe third is that this statistical illiteracy can have serious consequences for healthWhat is the difference between absolute and relative risk Which type of risk does the media tend to report p 54 top of p 55Absolute is the statistical significance of the change relative to the stats while relative shows on the barebone information such as a 100 increaseThe media most often reports the relative riskWhat is the difference between conditional probabilities and natural frequencies Which is easier to understand Why p 55Conditional probabilities show the information including sensitivity and the falsepositive rateNatural frequencies gives more insight into the information in the same way absolute risk does for riskNatural frequencies are easier to understand because they break the information down by different levels to show each value and how much each thing occursDefine positive predictive value p 56The positive predictive value is the ability to accurately predict the likelihood of a person having a disease based on a positive testWhat is the key difference between survival and mortality rates What is the lead time bias p 56Diagnosis is not used in the mortality ratesScreening biases the survival rate heavily because it sometimes catches diseases early and doesnt account for nonprogressive strands of the disease meaning a group may not die within the allotted time frame because they were screened early on while the same group without screening couldWhat is the overdiagnosis bias p 571Affects the survival rate accounts for screening results that show similar abnormalities to what a disease would cause but those abnormalities may never progress into symptoms in the patientWhat are the 4 questions we should ask about all risks p 581Risk of whatUnderstand the outcome to which the risk refers2Time frameUnderstand the time the risk refers to3How bigSince there are no zero risks size is what matters4Does it apply to meCheck to see whether the risk information is based on studies of people like youpeople of your age or sex or people with health problems similar to yoursWhat are some of the potential harms of screening tests p 58Costs inconvenience and false alarms the most dangerous of the threeDistinguish between false positive and false negative errors in screening tests What is specificity and sensitivity p 59A false positive is a test that results in a positive reading on a patient without the disease while a false negative shows that a patient who actually has the disease does notSpecificity and sensitivityoSpecificityThe proportion of negative tests among clients without the conditionoSensitivitythe proportion of positive tests among clients with the conditionWhat seems to be a necessary precondition for minimal statistical literacy p 61 Define the illusion of certainty p 61Basic numeracy or the ability to convert certain percentages to ratios and viceversaAn emotional need for certainty when none existsAccording to Kalet Roberts and Fletcher 1994 how many patients discussed risks and benefits with their doctors during visits How does this relate to peoples ability to understand basic risks p 63About one out of four patients discussed risks and benefits with their doctorsoIf they dont ask they wont receive the proper information to make decisions concerning their health and wont get the most from their health careAccording to research people are most likely to have a favorable evaluation of a treatment when benefits are described in what terms p 65
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