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Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSYC 4030
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Exam 1 Study Guide Psychology 4030Achieving Goals LectureWhat are the major components of selfregulation with respect to learning and achievement The ability to set and achieve goals is a key to longterm success It includesBeing able to wisely set goals Being able to monitor progress accurately Being able to avoid obstacles or problemsolver around them Being able to manage time Being able to learn from experience reflection and apply it in the future Related concepts Selfregulated learner metacognitionWhat are common reasons people fail to achieve their goalsWhat is affective forecastingPeople often fail to sufficiently think about why they want to achieve their goals 1 Better to set goals that reflect personal interests and values rather than for social pressure or because of expectations about what you should do2 Goals that are concordant with your interests and values are less likely to lead to internal conflict and are more likely to sustain extended effortDifficulty predicting the future 1 affective forecastingpredicting how a future outcome will make you feel a eg I will be very happy sad if I get X where x is win the lottery get married graduate fromhigh school get a divorce b Finding is that people consistently mispredict how happy or unhappy they will feel as a resultPeople structure their goals poorly 1 Set too many goals 2 Set goals that conflict with each other Problems with goal definition 1 Goal is not specific enough 2 Goal is too far away distal rather than nearby proximal 3 Not enough time put into defining the goal and identifying obstacles to completionPeople dont plan on a daily basis what they will do to advance toward their goalPeople dont practice their new behavior until it becomes easier more automaticPeople dont measure their progress or do so poorly 1 Need an operational definition 2 No wiggle roomAffective Forecasting continuedWhy do people make these errors a Being in a different state hot or cold when predicting than experiencing b Because they focus on the outcome alone and dont consider other aspects of their lives that will very likely occur at the same time 1 Related to the Planning Fallacy a Think things are going to take less time than they do c Failing to anticipate how quickly we will recover from negative outcomesWhat is mental simulation and how is it useful What is an implementation intention and why is it helpfulmental simulationyou imagine going through the process of achieving the goal a Research suggests that imagining the process is much more helpful than simply imagining the producteg accepting the Olympic gold b Helpful because it forces you to think through how you will solve your problem and may help you anticipate problem implementation intentions specify when where and how something will be accomplished 1 At 3 pm today I will sit down at my desk and read Chapter 1 B Implementation intentions help to ensure persistence in the face of distraction and obstacles 1 Helps you remember to do the task because youve specified the cues beforehand 2 Reduces working memory load because you wont have to make decisions on the fly 3 Helps to make behavior more automaticHow do you make something a habitWhy is constancy and moderation so important to achievementHabits come from practice a It takes less effort to do the same task over time b People often dont consider this 2 Work with constancy and moderation a Regular work toward your goal in bitesized chunks b Helps ensure regular progress toward goal without burnout c Helps you to feel youve done enough each day instead of anxiety over lack of progress 3 Anticipate potential obstacles and avoid them eg studying in a quiet place3 Make your goals public 4 Reward yourself for completing subgoals 5 Track your progress 6 What if I cant get started A Contingency management 1 Priority principleYou must do some task before some valued activity 2 Strong contingencyYou write a contract that involves a big penalty if you fail to complete the task 7 Motivation is more likely to FOLLOW action than to precedWhat is contingency management Why is feedback so importantA Contingency management 1 Priority principleYou must do some task before some valued activity 2 Strong contingencyYou write a contract that involves a big penalty if you fail to complete the task 1 Why keeping track of progress is so importantFEEDBACK 2 Use the feedback to discover what is working and what is not reflection a Look for patternsWhat kind of situations give you the most trouble the least 3 Dont be afraid to ask for input from other people a Can provide ideas for dealing with obstacles or simply provide support for the goal 4 Goal achievement is a CYCLE not a one and doneDistinguish between a growth mindset and a fixed mindset Can you change a persons mindset and if so how What might be the longterm consequences of adopting each mindsetFixed Mindset 1 GoalGain positive evaluation and avoid negative judgments about your competence 2 See intelligence or specific ability as fixed a You have it or you don t b When I do poorly I dont have it 3 Consequences a Tend to select easier goals to show their competence b Less likely to persist when doing poorly c May lead to a pattern of avoidanceGrowth Mindset 1 Goal is to increase competence mastery oriented 2 See intelligence or specific ability as malleable 3 Consequences a Tend to choose more challenging tasks that will extend their competence b Increased persistencesees difficulty as a cue to increase effort or to analyze and vary their strategies c Willing to risk looking sillyignorant in order to acquire skills and knowledgeChanging ones mindsetGood evidence that people can change their attributions about success and failureResearch Blackwell Trzesniewski and Dweck 2007 used an intervention with students making the difficult transition to junior high school
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