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PSYC 4034 Chapter 7 Book Notes

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PSYC 4034
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PSYC4034Chapter7BookNotesAuditiontheBodySensesandtheChemicalSensesIAudition Audition is the second most important sense AThe Stimulus aSoundsiProduced by objects that vibrate and set molecules of air into motion iiIf the vibration ranges between 3020000 times per second waves will stimulate receptor cells in our ears and will be perceived as sounds bVariations in sound iPitch 1Determined by the frequency of vibration 2Measured in Hertz Hz or cycles per second iiLoudness 1A function of intensityaThe degree to which the condensations and rarefactions of air differ from each other bMore vigorous vibrations of an object produce more intense sound waves and louder sounds iiiTimbre 1Provides information about the nature of the particular sound aMost natural acoustic stimuli are complex consisting or several different frequencies of vibration bThe particular mixture determines sounds timbre BAnatomy of the Ear aPinna iExternal ear iiSound first originates here and is funneled through the ear canal bTympanic membrane iEardrum iiSound comes here after being funneled through ear canal iiiVibrates with each soundcMiddle Ear iConsists of a hollow region behind tympanic membrane of bones 1Ossicles bones of the middle ear 2Set into vibration by tympanic membrane aMalleus hammeriConnects with tympanic membrane and transmit vibrations via thebIncus anvil cStapes stirrup iTo the cochlea iiBaseplate of stapes presses against membrane behind the oval window 1Opening in the bony process surrounding cochleadInner Ear iCochlea 1Structure that contains the receptors2Filled with fluid aSounds transmitted through the air must be transferred into a liquid medium iThe chain of ossicles serves as an extremely efficient means of energy transmission iiThe baseplate of the stapes makes smaller but more forceful excursions against the oval window than the tympanic membrane does against the malleus 3Divided longitudinally into three section aScala vestibuli vestibular stairway bScala media middle stairway cScala tympani tympanic stairway4Organ of Corti receptive organ aLocated in the scala media bHair CellscAnchored by Deiters cells todThe basilar membrane eCilia of the cells pass through the reticular membrane and the ends of some attach to the rigidfTectorial membranegSound waves cause the basilar membrane to move relative to the tectorial membrane which bends the cilia of hair cellsiThis bending produces receptor potentials iiRound Window 1A membrane covered opening in the bone surrounding the cochlea2Allows fluid inside the cochlea to move back and forth aThe baseplate of the stapes vibrates against the membrane behind the oval window and introduces sound waves into the cochlea iThese vibrations cause part of the basilar membrane to move back and forth bPressure changes in fluid are transmitted to the membrane of the round window which moves in and out in a manner opposite the movements of the oval window 3Some people suffer from a middle ear disease that causes the bone to grow over the round windowaThe basilar membrane cannot move back and forth iSevere hearing loss bHearing can be restored by a surgical procedure iFenestration iiTiny hole is drilled in the bone where the round window should be CAuditory Hair Cells and the Transduction of Auditory Information aHair cells iLocated on the basilar membrane iiContain cilia 1Fine hairlike appendages iiiInner cells and outer cells
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