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EXAM 1 (aced the test and got 96%)

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PSYC 4035
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Drugs and BehaviorBackgroundPharmacologythe science of drugsDerived from the Greek Pharmacon medication potion poisonWhy and how does a drug actWhat is a DrugFrom the French droguedry powder A nonfood chemical that alters one or more normal biological processes in living animalsPsychoactive drugs act on the nervous system to alter biological processesPsychoactive drugs Problems have worsened in the last 200 yearsWhy2 main reasons for problems with psychoactive drugs1 Acceptability a Vaccinescontrolled communicable diseasesb Antibioticscontrolled infectious diseases After vaccines and antibiotics we came to a third period psychiatric drugs c Psychiatric drugsshift from physical to mental Cant SEE the cause of behavioral psychological problemsThese drugs act on the brain and change our behavior that is just not right Nowadays the argument is that psychiatric drugs are just not workingd Contraceptivesshift from unhealthy ill to healthy bodyThere is no problemthe person is not unhealthy e Recreational drugsshift from physical to mental in healthy brain2 Accessibility We can get themthis was not always the casea Democratization of privilegedisorders ofvolition gambling sexual revolution eating disorders etcMany more activities are available to regular peopleSo many more people are exposed to these types of activities that used to be considered a privledgeb Scientific advancesmore powerful formulations Invention of hypodermic needleCivil war periodDiscovery of chemical structuresynthesis of more potent manmade formulationsPharmacokineticsDefinitions1 What your body does to the drugs2 Processes involved in the movement of drugs in biological systems3 Application of mathematics to predict the rate of change of the drug in the body 5 steps 1 Absorptionmovement of drug from site of administration to the bloodgetting drug from outside to the blood stream2 Distributionmovement of drug from blood to rest of body3 Bindingattachment of drug to its site of action to produce its effect4 Biotransformationbreakdown of drug metabolismFirst part to get rid of the drug5 Excretionelimination of drug from the body Get rid of itAbsorptionDistributionMetabolismADMEExecretionIAbsorption Major routes of administration 1 ParenteralNot involving the digestive tract a Common types of parenteral routesSubcutaneous scunder the skin Intramuscular iminto a muscleIntravenous ivinto a vein b Advantage can adjust dose easily c Disadvantage may not be able to reverse an overdose easily unless antidote is available 2 Enteraldigestive tract oral or rectal Main common route to medicinesUsually means by mouthperoral po but not always egoChewing tobaccodrug is absorbed by buccal mucous membraneoNitroglycerinunder the tongueoSuppositories in rectum vaginaparenteralalso absorbed into the blood useful if individual is unconscious or vomiting Factors Affecting AbsorptionSolubilityPartition CoefficientIonization CoefficientFirst Pass EffectSolubility1To get to capillaries drug must pass through intestinal wall which is made up of lipids fats 2There are no pores in stomach or intestine lining3The more lipid soluble a drug is the easier it can pass through the intestine walls into the blood
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