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Topic 12 Hallucinogen Notes (got 94% in the course)

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PSYC 4035
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Topic 12HallucinogensI Hallucinogens The word hallucinate comes from Latin words meaning to wander in the mind A Categories1 Anticholinergics 2Biogenic aminescrosstolerance between these two but not the other categories a Serotonergic b Catecholinergic adrenergic3 Glutamatergic 4MiscClassification of psychedelic drugsAny agent that causes alterations in perception cognition and mood as its primary psychobiological actions in the presence of an otherwise clear sensorium ANTICHOLINERGICoScopolamineCATECHOLAMINELIKE oMescaline DOM MDA DMA MDMA ecstasy TMA MDE Myristin elemicin SEROTONINLIKE oLysergic acid diethylamide LSD Dimethyltryptamine DMT Psilocybin psilocin bufotenine Ololiuqui Harmine GLUTAMINERGIC NMDA RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTSoPhencyclidine Sernyl Ketamine Ketalar Dextromethorphan OPIOID KAPPA RECEPTOR AGONISToSalvinorin AAAnticholinergics 1Antagonize the muscarinic receptors2Natural substancesa Atropineb Hyoscyamine c Scopolamine hyoscine Historical Background The history of scopolamine is long and colorful The drug is distributed widely in nature foundin especially high concentrations in the plants Atropa belladonna belladonna or deadlynightshade Datura stramonium Jamestown weed jimsonweed stinkweed thorn apple or devils apple Mandragora officinarum mandrake and Datura inoxia moonflower See next slideBoth professional and amateur poisoners of the Middle Ages frequently used deadly nightshade The plants name Atropa belladonna is derived from Atropos one of the three Fates who supposedly cut the thread of life Belladonna means beautiful woman which refers to the drugs ability to dilate the pupils when it is applied topically to the eyes eyes with widely dilated pupils were presumably a mark of beauty Accidental ingestion of berries from Datura has even been associated with the incapacitation of whole armies for example the defeat of Marc Antonys army in 36 BC and the defeat of British soldiers by settlers in the rebellion known as Bacons Revolution near Jamestown Virginia in 1676 hence the name Jamestown weed4Plant family Solanaceae
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