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Topic 13 Nicotine Notes (scored 92%)

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PSYC 4035
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Topic 13NicotineNicotineStimulantAEpidemiologyDemographics1One of the 3 most widely used psychoactive drugs alcohol and caffeine2Most preventable cause of disease and premature death 3Current use peaked at42 in 1965 4Average age of people who start is declining 9 out of 10 are addicted by age 21 Nicotine is a stimulantClose to a quarter of the population smoke National Survey on Drug Use and Health NSDUHIn 2008 284of the US population12yrs old about 709 mill people used a tobacco product at least once in the month prior to being interviewed This includes 28 mill young people aged 12 to 17 114of this groupAlmost 60 million Americans 239of population were current cigarette smoker 131 million smoked cigars almost 87 million used smokeless tobacco and nearly 19 million smoked tobacco in pipesB Historyno society that has adopted tobacco has ever given it up1Only drug of abuse that is native to the Americas tobaccotabacco2pronged tube used by natives of Central America to take snuff used from Paraguay to Quebec It is widely speculated that tobacco has been cultivated in the Americas since 6000 BC 2Given to Columbus when he landed at San Salvador on Oct 121492 Christopher Columbus and his crewman on their voyage to the New World were the first Europeans to see tobacco smokingColumbus wrote in his journal how they offered his Spanish sailors fruit spears and certain dried leaves for which Columbus could think of no use So Columbus and his crew welcomed the fruit and spears the dried leaves they threw awayThree days later Columbus met a solitary Native American in a canoe who also offered the dried leaves and made a great show of his offering The following month two sailors Rodrigo de Jerez and Luis de Torres were sent on a three day expedition across Cuba They reported how the Natives wrapped tobacco in a musket formed of paper and after lighting one end inhaled smoke through the other Jerez and Torres became the first Europeans to smoke tobacco Rodrigo de Jerez became a confirmed tobacco smoker probably the first European to become addicted to nicotine When Jerez returned to his home town of Ayamonte during the Spanish Inquisition the holy inquisitors accused him of consorting with the devil when they saw smoke coming from his mouth He was imprisoned for seven years By the time he is released smoking is a custom in Spain Tobacco was used by Native Americans in all temperate regions of the Americas In some areas where it could not be grown people made long voyages to trade skins for tobacco It was used only by males as a social drug But tobacco was also used for medicinal and spiritual purposes by most Native American tribes Cigarette snuff cigar and chewing tobaccos were all being used for hundreds of years before Columbus arrival But smoking tobacco through a pipe was almost universal for Native Americans Just about every Native American culture in the Americas had a pipe of some kind and it was the most common method for smoking It was from the West Indian snuffing pipe called a tobago that tobacco got its name Jean Nicot first sent tobacco seeds from Portugal to Paris in 1550 and actively promoted its medicinal use ironically he claimed that lung ailments could be cured by tobacco In 1600s Turkey Russia and China all imposed death penalties for smoking Walter Raleigh and John Rolfe are credited with introducing it in Virginia C Pharmacokinetics1828nicotine separated out from tobacco 1 of4000 compounds released by burning 1843molecular formula established1903nicotine first successfully synthesizedColorless volatile liquid alkaloidnot well absorbed from digestive tract although a number of children poison themselves each year from eating tobaccoexposure to pesticidesThe amount actually delivered depends on how the cigarette is smokedAbsorbed from every site on or in the body and thoroughly distributed in the bodythe brain placenta all body fluids including breast milkThe liver metabolizes 8090 before it is excreted by the kidneys Metabolized by the hepatic enzyme CYP2A6 which may be inhibited by SSRI antidepressantsCYP2A6nicotine is not being broken down because of SSRIs so youre getting a bigger hit Nicotine levels in cigarettes manufactured in the US have increased by 10 percent over the last six years a report by the Massachusetts Department of Health Nicotine is the main component
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