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ALTERNATIVES - Exam Notes (got 96%)

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PSYC 4039
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ALTERNATIVES19001950 The Second Biological Psychiatry or the Dark Ages of PsychiatryAAs used by the author of your book alternatives means alternative to Custodial institutionalization or Psychoanalytic psychotherapy It was serious invasivehighly questionable 1Shorters meaning of alternative is something other than analysiswarehousing2Dark Ages of Psychiatry bc it was shameful due to things that were done which led directly to the antipsychiatry movement in the US nd3It is the 2 Biological Psychiatry that was an aggressive development of biological therapies like lobotomyndnd4Alternatives cover somatic therapies btw circa 19001950This period could be called the 2 biological psychiatryThe 2 was therapeutic the first was notChange from anatomical studies to somatic therapies5In 1900 there were alternatives to custodial hospitalizationpsychoanalysis Shock therapy Hydrotherapy FaradizationsPharmacotherapy6By 1900 disillusionment about treatment esp of serious mental illnessThe therapies here are outgrowth of attempts to restore a therapeutic mission to psychiatry particularly in the hospitalAAs used by the author of your book alternatives means alternative to there was search for alternatives for these 2 It is not true bc during Hippocrates time they did other things so there was alternatives 1Custodial institutionalization2Psychoanalytic psychotherapyBIn 1900 there were alternatives to custodial hospitalizationpsychoanalysis1Shock therapy any treatment in which a person have psychological or physiological disturbances Physiological involved an attempt to make people think they were going to die hydrotherapy by placing people in a box under water submerged patient in cold water or have people walk across stream of water2Hydrotherapyany use of water to treat mental illness like soaking in relaxing in a mineral bath in a spa use of cold shower warm water3Faradization application of using electrical current on people bodies It does not induce SEIZURESdoes not apply to the head but to the armslegs4Pharmacotherapy it has been around since the time of HippocratesBEARLY DRUG THERAPIES1ANCIENTSaHellebore plant that gives you diarrheabLaudanum alcoholopium standard medicinal product in the household It is powerful drug that make patient feel better for a short time It is addictive1Laudanumtincture of opium It comes from laudatory2Paracelsus Philippe Aureole Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim 14931541thcMercury used up until 19 c It is a deadly poisontoxicHippocrates gave it to patients in small dosageCorpus saliva is a side effect It lost a fair number of patients TH219 CENTURYtha Morphine became available1800 Narcotic used as painkiller It is plant derivedgets it from opium poppy plant It is naturally occurring substance Chemists were able to isolate morphine in its purify form which can be taken orally bHashishused in the treatment of mental illness that comes from marijuana plant resin of the plantA French psychiatrist Moreau went on vacation in the Middle East in 1840 It was popular there so he decided to bring some back homeHis work stled to a 1850 book that was used for mental illnessit became the 1 book written about psychopharmacologyc Cocaine plant derived substance comes from the cacao plants which is indigenous to South America chewed it for 1000s of yearsIn 1850 it was extracted a principle active ingredient from the plant in a powerful pure form for administrationHyperdermic needle was invented at the same time so they thought injecting the drug was safe bc it goes directly into the bloodstream circulationquickerlower dosageSigmund Freud advocated for cocaine He introduced it for psychiatric treatment esp depression Freud also advocated its use for other drug addictionsthdChloral Hydrate chloral paraldehydebromide were all widely used in mental hospitals in 1900there were powerful synthetic substances that are not plant derived 1Chloral was synthesized in 1832introduced into medicine in 18692Has been used for narcoanalysisIt has a colorless slight bitter taste aromatic odor3Liquid chloral called knockout drops4Mickey Finn liquid chloral added to alcohol5Combination of chloralalcohol has very potent hypnotic effectse Paraldehyde was discovered in 1829 introduced into medicine in 1882It is less potentless toxic than chloralf Bromide was discovered in 1826first used in prolonged sleep therapy in 1897 by Macleod1It was introduced as depressant for treatment of epilepsy in 18572It produces lighter sleep than wchloralparaldehyde3It may cause hangoverhas low acute toxicityThe chronic toxicity frequent is called bromismg Belladonna Alkaloids atropine scopolamine is the best representative of itIt is plant derivedmorphine cocainehashish are all alkaloidBelladonna means beautiful lady which is used to enhance patients pupils It produces deliriumhas sedative effectCNEW ALTERNATIVESCIRCA 19001950 was the main focus that was introduced1Pharmacotherapy2Defocalization surgical antisepsis 3Insulin Coma Therapy4Metrazol Convulsive therapy5Electroconvulsive Therapy6PsychosurgeryPHARMACOTHERAPY 190019501Stimulants amphetamine
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