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Psyc 4039 Final Exam Notes (Got A+ on the test)

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PSYC 4039
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PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGYAFrom FREUD to PROZACchanges in the 1950s1Rise of psychopharmacology is often characterized as a scientific revolution Kuhnian sense referred to changes or characteristics of a scientific revolution in the 1950s Some paradigms are overthrown while some are replaced2Transition from psychoanalytic to biochemical paradigmsPsychiatry changed from blaming the mother to blaming the brain A way problems are perceptionalized had changedEven though Psychoanalytic was a huge deal in its day biochemistry has always dominates In the 1950s60s it was still a debate whether PA should be taught in medical schoolBModern Psychopharmacology has Achieved Paradigm Status Paradigm Assumptions1Mental disorders are organicreducible cause by disturbances in brain functions or structures2Mental disorders have a biochemical basis focus less on neuroanatomy anatomical of the brainmore on biochemistry3Mental disorders can be treated by manipulation of brain chemistry changes brain chemistry wdrugsCSide notes from photo brain makes up of millions of neurons Arrows suggest direction of the flow of infoInfo comes from neurons to dendrite or somaThe central region is the soma Neurons have axon wrapped in myelin sheath Info flows toward the tips of axonsbranched out to the terminal buttons specialized structure for conveying info from one neuron to the next The synapses are where neurons communicated pre or pro synapses The critical point axons are not touching dendrites presynapses secrete neuronssynapse on soma cell body is the bulbous end of a neuron containing the cell nucleus synapse on dendrite Myelin sheath material that forms a layer usually around only the axon of a neuron It is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system axon is a long slender projection of a nerve cell or neuron that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or somaterminal button distal terminations of the branches of an axonDDrug Mechanisms of Action Agonist drug that stimulates receptorsAntagonistdrug that blocks receptorsLdopa serves as NT precursorDrug inhibits NT synthesis enzymeReserpine prevents storage of NT in vesicles Amphetamine Methylphenidate stimulates release of NT Drug inhibits release of NT Drug simulates postsynaptic receptors antipsychotics chlorpromazine haloperidol blocks postsynaptic receptors Iproniazid blocks MAODrug stimulates auto receptorsinhibits release of NT Drug blocks auto receptorsincrease releases of NT Drug inhibits NT degradation SSRIs ProzacPaxil drug blocks reuptake EMONOAMINE NEUROTRANSMITTERS need to know1Catecholamine2Dopamine3Norepinephrine noradrenaline4Epinephrine adrenaline5Indolamine6Serotonin 5hydroxytryptamine 5HTFThe BEGINNING of MODERN PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGYSerendipitythe discovery of something not sought wmost discoveries being accidental1DISCOVERY of the ANTIPSYCHOTICS kicked off pharmacology revolution in psychiatry bc most were psychiatric patientsakaNEUROLEPTICS MAJOR TRANQULIZERSATARACTICSaFIRST NEUROLEPTICS1Chlorpromazine works by blocking a variety of receptors in the brain particularly dopamine receptors2ReserpinebPHENOTHIAZINES most important discovery for Psychiatry according to teacher is chlorpromazinest11850s phenothiazine dyes eg methylene blue synthesized from coal tar MB is one of the 1 Phenothiazineit hasbiologic activitiesDyes discovered when coal tar distilledCoal tar product of destructive distillation heat in absence of air of coalContains many useful organic molecules eg dyesSignificancestimulates commercial interest in coal tar chemistry looking for dyes from colored fiberst21880s Ehrlich discovers new dyes selectively stain bacteria he discovered MB He won the Nobel Prize developed 1 antibioticsdiscovered the biological stance3Phenothiazine used as antiparasiticsMethylene blue also stains the malaria parasiteLead to its use as antimalarial1940slooking for antimalarialantiparasitic drugs researchers synthesize phenothiazine aminesRoutine testing reveals antihistamine activities could be used on animalspeople4Methylene blue tried in mental patients MB make cells use oxygen fastercA PROBLEM wMETHYLENE BLUE patients entire body assumes a greenish slatelike hue much more pronounced than found in certain cadavers Allexshat 1938 It turned people greendid not workdPHENOTHIAZINE AMINESst11940s Phenothiazine amines promethazine synthesized in search for antiparasitics it was developed 1 for antiparasitic property but research continuedIt is still aroundwidely used today2Routine screening reveals antihistamine activity antihistamine was just discoveredthe earliest development was in 1930Benadryl3Histamine implicated in allergic reactionsshock shock that could kill youeHenri Laborits Theory of Shock search for drugs to prevent shock Shock occurred during surgery can compromise the heart abilities1Sustained activation of autonomic nervous system part of nervous system that mediate stress2Vascular damagerelease of histamine damaged blood vessels3Histamine causes vascular hypermeability fluid leak released histamine4Lytic cocktail cutoff cocktail
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