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Midterm

PSYC 4039 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Disorganized Schizophrenia, Habilitation, Neurochemistry

22 pages95 viewsWinter 2013

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 4039
Professor
All
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 22 pages of the document.
MADNESS & MEDICINE
EXAM 2 10/20/2011
THE FIRST BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
Continuity vs. Discontinuity
(Chapters 3,4,5 Don’t really have to read much of 3 & 4)
Everything for 3 & 4 will be in the powerpoints
Normal Science vs. Revolutionary Science
Normal Science: continuity
Revolutionary Science: discontinuity
Book doesn’t get into the philosophy of this, but book assumes discontinuity in the history of psychiatry.
(2nd biological psychiatry, 3rd biological psychiatry, etc.)
~1850-1900: first biological psychiatry
Undergoes revolution that qualitatively looks at things differently: psychoanalytic
In mid 1950’s, psychoanalytic is replaced by a stimulus of a 2nd biological psychiatry = medications
Professor: where book sees discontinuity, Dr. Beaumeister sees continuity
(“Things are not quite the way the book portrays them”)
Developments in:
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Genetics
Neuroanatomy
Neurochemistry
Clinical/descriptive method – develops before 1900; “continuation of first biological psychiatry, just with
a different interest”
Genetic Madness: ~1850
Degeneration:
oThe idea that genetic disorders get worse as they pass through successive generations
oMorel and others proposed a degenerative sequence:
-Criminality
-Sexual perversion
-Mental illness
oStigmatized the mentally ill and created fear & loathing of psychiatrists (early roots of
antipsychiatry)
-People were terrified of not only being diagnosed with mental illness, but having a
family member diagnosed with mental illness as well (especially if this is a genetic
disease)
Evolution:
oStruggle for survival
oGenetic variation in physical & psychological traits
oNatural selection (survival of the fittest)
oUnits of selection
-Society (Social Darwinism, Spencer coined the phrase “survival of the fittest”)
-Species
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-Individual (most important)
-Gene
The gene is the elemental unit of selection
Fitness (the representation of genes in future generations)
Inclusive fitness (altruism): you can be fit without reproducing; altruism: doing good; an act that is
committed & damages the fitness of the individual performing the act, but helps other individuals
Eugenics
oSir Francis Galton
oHereditary Genius
oEminent men have eminent offspring
oEugenics – “well born” (antonyms – cacogenic, dysgenic)
oAdvocated government control of human breeding
oMental measurement
-Galton focused on mental characteristics: people with artistic, mathematical, etc. traits
-Galton developed some of the first tests of mental measurement (measure people’s
reaction time to a stimulus)
1900 America fertile ground for eugenics
Certain immigrants “more given to crimes of larceny, kidnapping, assault, murder, rape & sex-immorality”
Low birth rates among the well-born leading to “race suicide”
Eugenics consistent with capitalism
Positive eugenics:
AES hold “fitter families” contest & gives $500 award for best eugenics sermon
Negative Eugenics:
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