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Psyc 4039 First Exam Notes (scored 92%)

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 4039
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
MADNESSMEDICINETHE HISTORY OF MEDICAL TREATMENT OF MENTAL DISORDERSPsychiatrists back in the day were using Freudian theories which is psychology pure and simplePsychiatry doesnt get started until 1800s or 1750s however mental illness started way before thenPsychiatry developed same time as mental hospitals developed here and in Europe CoincidedThis course is about severe mental illness that many attribute to a brain diseaseHistory of PsychiatryHistory of Mental IllnessHistory of Mental HospitalsThey are they were put in contempt because they behave so badly sometimes shackledMentally ill are most likely to be viewed with compassion by family members but sometimes they cannot take care of them and they push them awayNo longterm mental hospitals for long term care These people usually end up on the street or in prisonAWHAT THIS COURSE IS NOT1Antipsychiatrymovement group of people against psychiatry Why Checkered history Invented horrific treatment for psychiatry patients like lobotomy2Antidrug is also against modern treatment like drugs Harmful side effects and its part of a plot on psyches to gain control over people and society Group best known for these efforts is Church of Scientology3Antibiologymany people are against the thought that mental disorders are a biologically caused disordersBPSYCHIATRY1The goodaPsychiatry saves lives common risk in mental illness is suicide If drugs can make people these people better it saved livesbPsychiatry improves the quality of life mentally ill are more prone to violence not saying that a mentally ill person is violenttheyre just more prone to violence2The badaEfficacy of treatments is exaggerated Drug companies usually exaggerate bc it helps their bottom limebUnderstanding of etiology is exaggerated Etiologymeans cause Exaggerated cause to justify treatmentcOverprescription of medication 36 million kids in US who are on psychiatric meds many also on heavy antipsychotic meds Are they overmedicateddOverMisdiagnosis of mental disorder In the past things just considered living and now were turning them into medical disorders3The uglyaHarmful treatments 19001950 psychiatry got very aggressive They were willing to try everything putting people in to comas making them seizure etc Anything they could to try to help thembRecklessness researchersclinicians Leading figures in psychiatry were real egotists Didnt worry that their research might be harming their patients May have had good intentions but bc of their personality flaws couldnt see the harm they were doingcNeglectabuse no other group has been as badly neglected and abused according to the teacherCWHY SHOULD WE CARE ABOUT HISTORY1Intrinsically interesting2Helps avoid mistakes of the pastaMistake of pastemptying mental hospitals3To understand the present one must begin in the past Ann Johnson Understand present were all the homeless came from4Helps to predict the future we are in midst of epidemic of mental illnessIt can only be appreciated from a historical perspectiveIf we had this perspective in 1950s we would have emptied out our mental hospitalsIf our understanding of the history of mental illness is correct then the epidemic will spread to developing nationsDHISTORIOGRAPHY1The writing of history2The study of the methods of historyhistorical writing Methods historians use to develop their ideas about history and to write historyhistiographyEISSUES IN HISTRIOGRAPHY1Practitioner vs academic historians There is bitter debated bt practitioneracademic historiansThe former say you cannot write history if you do not know science The final say you need specific training in historiography to write good historyaPractitionertrained scientists who do history tend toward internalism psychologists psychiatrists etc Got their degree in this fieldbAcademicpersons trained as professional historians tend toward externalism got their degree in history2Internalism vs externalism Issue here is focus versus breadthcontextaInternalism interested in ideasevent specific to internal to a particular discipline eg medicinebExternalismInterest in the cultural political economic contexthow this context influenced events3Present oriented vs diachronical history Issue here is how should our knowledge of what happened after an event influence our interpretation of the eventEg ethics of Health experimentaTwo meanings of presentism Present oriented study of past wpresent always in mindAdvantage is to look for continuities lessons that have current relevanceEnables us to understand the present to avoid repeating the pastto predict the futureDisadvantageanachronismsBad judging past by todays standards or saying that someone from the past who prefers a lobotomy is guilty of malpracticeGoodusing present to understand the pastpresent or historical document that is unintelligible and we have techniques to make it intelligible or how did we get 36 million kids on meds today Well you have to know the times before the pastPresentist histories can be both internalexternalbDiachronical histories toward externalism Diachronical view writing from the perspective that all later events did not occur EX Historian gets into time machines Forgets everything they know from presenttime Lives as a person from the time they traveled to and write about exactly what was known then4Refers to two theories of scientificprogressaPersonalistic progresschange result from actions of individualsIndividuals can have great impact eg Einstein HitlerbNaturalistic times set the stage for progresschangeIf Darwin did not discover evolution someone else would bc the time was rightcEX Lobotomy Personalistic Lobotomy history greatly influenced by Freeman while Naturalistic Lobotomy influenced by social professionaleconomic forcesScience PhilosophyHistoryAHISTORYSCIENCE DIFFERENCES 1Historical events are unique2Science often deals wrepeatable events3In science the causal variable can be isolatedmanipulated4Science yields lawsBHISTORYSCIENCE SIMILARITIES Evidence is reside of past that is found in the presentMethod of exposition is narrative explanation eg event A occurred because events Band C came before Shuttlewait p 2161Both strive for truth they want to know what really happens This may sound obvious but some people dont believe in objective truth2Knowledge is cumulative understanding of WWII grows as decades pass Science grows facts are added upon facts3History is evidence based essence of science is evidence according to professor empirical evidence needs to be provided to accept assertions4Historical conclusions are subject to refutation sciences obviously try to refute other scientists work Historians are subject to refutation just the same a document in a battle is a groundbreaking then you find out it was forged5Some sciences deal wnonrepeatable events eg evolutionary biology geology cosmology selfexplanatory6History is arguably lawful just like science is lawful Lots of debate about this CHistorical Law1Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it Law of Repetitive Consequences George Santayana 2Population growth is held in check by war faminedisease3The prevalence of a mental disorder is directly proportional to the availability of treatment for that disorderHistorical lawsOver population leas to war faminepestilence MaltusUnique never happened before havent happened since wont happen again Therefore you cant study this like a lab scientist would Cant recreate these people and manipulate variables to see why they did what they didLawsno question that science generates law gravity motionEfficacy of a treatment is historically contingentThe vigor wwhich psychiatrist defendpromote a drug treatment is directly proportional to monetary value of gifts they have received from drug company sales representativeSimilarity between historycertain sciencesEvidence is reside of past that is found in the presentMethod of exposition is narrative explanation event A occurred bc events Band C came before Shuttlewait p 216DThe prevalence of a mental disorder is directly proportional to the availability of treatment for that disorder Have we always been this depressed or are we now just better able to see it as depression Before antidepressants there were depressed people but if it was great enough they wound up in mental hospitals Relatively rareBefore AntidepressantsAfter Antidepressants50100 Million100000MillionHistorical Narrative Description of events what happened including a chronology dimension of timeexplication of causeeffect based on evidence Piece of history or writingAScientific Skepticism1The problem of induction Most scientific reason in inductive you reason from specific to general conclusions ex I watch birds and see a black crow then another black one then hundreds of black onesthen state that all crows are black inductive arguments are not valid in this instance People say on this basis that science cannot prove anything Popperain said yeah we cant prove anything but we can disprove thingsaScience relies on inductive reasoningbInductive reasoning is invalidcPopperain model of scienceConjectureRefutation 2All experience is interpreted sense organs take physical energy of external world and interpret it into what we see How do I know that what I see is accurate rep of external world How do I know my brain is interpreting this correctly Because of this people say we can never know external world with certaintyaAll knowledge of external world comes to us through our sensesbOur sensory systems represent the physical world in patterns of electrical impulsescWe can never know the external world wcertaintyBCONSTRUCTION of REALITYDark Star1Foucaults speech certain people play role of telling people what is truefalse EX Professors Experts or someone of privilege status count more than othersSocial construction something we make Truth is relativeCThe New HistoricismPostmodernism1Social construction of reality
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