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Exam 1 Definitions.doc

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Louisiana State University
PSYC 4070

Psyc 4070 test 1 definitions Chapter 1 1. lifespan development- the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occurs 2. physical development- development involving the body’s physical makeup, including the brain, nervous system, muscles, senses, and the need for food, drink and sleep 3. cognitive development- development involving the ways that growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a person’s behavior 4. personality development- development involving the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another change over the life span 5. social development- the way in which individuals’ interactions with others and their social relationships grow, change and remain stable over the course of life 6. bioecological approach- the perspective suggesting that different levels of the environment simultaneously influence individuals 7. cohort- a group of people born at around the same time in the same place, or, more generally, a class of people sharing similar characteristics a. history-graded influences- influences (biological and environmental) associated with a particular historical movement b. age-graded influences- biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of when or where they’re raised c. sociocultural-graded influences- social and cultural factors present at a particular time for a particular individual 8. continuous change- gradual development in which achievements at one level build on those of previous levels; change at each stage is quantitative 9. discontinuous change- development that occurs in distinct steps or stages, with each stage bringing about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at earlier stages 10. critical period- a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences and the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli are necessary for development to proceed normally 11. sensitive period- a point in development when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment, but the absence of those stimuli doesn’t always produce irreversible consequences 12. maturation- the predetermined unfolding of genetic information 13. theories- explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest, providing a framework for understanding the relationships among an organized set of facts or principles 14. psychodynamic perspective- the approach that states behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts that are generally beyond people’s awareness and control 15. psychoanalytic theory- the theory proposed by Freud that suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior a. id- unorganized, inborn part of personality present at birth; represents primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression and irrational impulses; operates on pleasure principle (maximize satisfaction and reduce tension) b. ego- part of personality that’s rational and reasonable; serves as buffer b/w real world and primitive id; reality principle- maintain safety and integrate person into society c. superego- person’s conscience incorporating distinctions between right and wrong 16. psychosexual development- according to Freud, a series of stages that kids pass through in which pleasure, or gratification, is focused on a particular biological function and body part a. fixation- behavior reflecting an earlier stage of development due to an unresolved conflict 17. psychosocial development- the approach that encompasses changes in our interactions with and understandings of one another as well as in our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society 18. behavioral perspective- the approach that suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment 19. classical conditioning- a type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally doesn’t bring about that type of response 20. operant conditioning- a form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences 21. behavior modification- a formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones 22. social-cognitive learning theory- learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model 23. cognitive perspective- the approach that focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world 24. information processing approaches- the model that seeks to identify the ways individuals take in, use and store info 25. sociocultural theory- the approach that emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions b/w members of a culture (Vygotsky) 26. cognitive neuroscience approaches- the approach that examines cognitive development through the lens of brain processes 27. humanistic perspective- the theory that contends that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior a. self-actualization- important concept; it’s a state of self-fulfillment in which people achieve their highest potential in their own unique way 28. evolutionary perspective- the theory that seeks to identify behavior that’s a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors 29. scientific method- the process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and the collection of data 30. hypothesis- a prediction stated in a way that permits it to be tested 31. correlational research- research that seeks to identify whether an association or relationship b/w two factors exist 32. experimental research- research designed to discover causal relationships b/w various factors 33. naturalistic observation- a type of correlational study in which some naturally occurring behavior is observed without intervention in the situation 34. cases studies- studies that involve extensive, in-depth interviews with a particular individual or small group of individuals 35. survey research- a type of study where a group of people chosen to represent some larger population are asked questions about their attitudes, behavior or thinking on a given topic 36. experiment- a process in which an investigator, called an experimenter, devises two different experiences for participants 37. independent variable- the variable that researchers manipulate in an experiment 38. dependent variable- the variable that researchers measure in an experiment and expect to change as a result of the experimental manipulation 39. sample- the group of participants chosen for the experiment 40. field study- a research investigation carried out in a naturally occurring setting 41. laboratory study- a research investigation conducted in a controlled setting explicitly designed to hold events constant 42. applied research- research meant to provide practical solutions to immediate problems 43. longitudinal research- research in which the behavior of one or more participants in a study is measured as they age 44. cross-sectional research- research in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time 45. sequential studies- research in which researchers examine a number of different age groups over several points in time 46. nature- traits, abilities, and capacities inherited from one’s parents 47. nurture- refers to the environmental influences that shape behavior 48. reinforcement- process by which a stimulus is provided that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated 49. punishment- introduction of unpleasant or painful stimulus or removal of desirable stimulus to decrease the probability that a preceding behavior will occur in the future chapter 2 1. gametes- the sex cells from the mother and father that form a new cell at conception 2. zygote- the new cell formed by the process of fertilization 3. genes- the basic unit of genetic info 4. DNA- the substance that genes are composed of that determines the nature of every cell in the body and how it will function 5. chromosomes- rod-shaped portions of DNA that are organized into 23 pairs 6. monozygotic twins- twins who are genetically identical 7. dizygotic twins- twins who are produced when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time 8. dominant trait- the one trait that’s expressed when two competing traits are present 9. recessive trait- a trait within an organism that’s present but it isn’t expressed 10. genotype- the underlying combo of genetic material present (but not outwardly visible) in an organism 11. phenotype- an observable trait; the trait that’s actually seen 12. homozygous- inheriting form parents similar genes for a given trait 13. heterozygous- inheriting from parents different forms of a gene for a given trait 14. polygenic inheritance- inheritance in which a combo of multiple gene pairs is responsible for the production of a particular trait 15. x-linked genes- genes that are considered recessive and located only on the X chromosome 16. behavioral genetics- the study of the effects of heredity on behavior and psychological characteristics 17. down syndrome- a disorder produced by the presence of an extra chromosome on the 21 pair; once referred to as mongolism; most frequent cause of MR 18. fragile X syndrome- a disorder produced by injury to a gene on the X chromosome, producing mild to moderate mental retardation 19. sickle-cell anemia- a blood disorder that gets its name form the shape of the red blood cells in those who have it 20. Tay-Sachs disease- a disorder that produces blindness and muscle degeneration prior to death; there is no treatment 21. Klinefelter’s syndrome- a disorder resulting from the presence of an extra X chromosome that produces underdeveloped genitals, extreme height and enlarged breasts 22. genetic counseling- the discipline that focuses on helping people deal with issues relating to inherited disorders 23. ultrasound sonography- a process in which high-frequency sound waves scan the mother’s womb to produce an image of the unborn baby, whose size and shape can be assessed 24. chorionic villus sampling CVS- a test used to find genetic defects that involves taking samples of hairlike material that surrounds the embryo 25. amniocentesis- the process of identifying genetic defects by examining a small sample of fetal cells drawn by a needle inserted into the amniotic fluid surrounding the unborn fetus 26. temperament- patterns of arousal and emotionality that represent consistent and enduring characteristics in an individual 27. multifactorial transmission- the determination of traits by a combo of both genetic and environmental factors in which a genotype provides a range within which a phenotype may be expressed 28. fertilization- the process by which a sperm and an ovum (the male and female gametes) join to form a single new cell 29. germinal stage- the first and shortest stage of the prenatal period, which takes place during the first 2 weeks following conception 30. placenta- a conduit between the mother and fetus, providing nourishment and oxygen via the umbilical cord 31. embryonic stage- the period from 2 to 8 weeks following fertilization during which significant growth occurs in the major organs and body systems 32. fetal stage- the stage that begins at about 8 weeks after conception and continues until birth 33. fetus- a developing child, from 8 weeks after conception until birth 34. infertility- the inability to conceive after 12 to 18 months of trying to become pregnant
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