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Notes Test 3 (97% in the course

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PSYC 4070
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Erick Erikson and Identity FormationSometimes adolescents assume a negative identity an identity that reflects the opposite of what is valued by those closest to them or by society at largeErickson argues for the importance of a psychosocial moratorium a time out when aCrisis in Ericksons TheoryEven though adolescents are going through crisis they are pretty much happyStages in Ericksons TheoryNot Global Adolescents do not struggle with identity in all domains at the same timeNot Stage Identity change does not happen in stages but gradually develops well into adulthoodPeople in twenties and thirties still question themselvesJames Marcia and Identity FormationJames Marcia 1980 designed a system for classifying adolescents identity into 4 states within categories such as occupation religious beliefs political ideology and sexual behaviorIdentity States1 Identity Diffusion Without a firm commitment to an identity and without efforts to progress towards forming an identity I dont really know who I am and dont really care apathetic Erickson calls this identity confusion2 Foreclosure Without exploring options adopting an identity chosen by or to appease othersGetting married just because someone believes that is the right time they are suppose to get married and not necessarily that they are in the correct relationship3 Moratorium Exploring possible optionsfor an identity without a clear commitment to any particular choice4 Identity Achievment Establishing a coherent sense of self based on previous considerations and personal decisions To tell if someone has foreclosed or if they have achieved identity you should challenge them on itPeople that are identity achieved react in a calm wayIf someone has foreclosed then they usually react strongly against the negativityIdentity Crisis and CommitmentThose people that are experiencing no crisis and have a commitment ForeclosureSee ChartCrisis Y Axis commitment x axisNo yesnoIdentity DiffusionIdentity ForeclosureyesIdentity MoratoriumIdentity AchievementMost common path for people to take is to go from Identity Foreclosure to Identity Moratorium to Identity AchievementCorrelates of Identity States 1 IdentityDiffusion apathetic lack intimate relationships distant relationships from parents2 Foreclosure Authoritarian attitudes close relationships with parents as college students3 Moratorium High selfesteem but high anxiety most likely to switch college majors4 Identity Achievement socially mature and higher achievement motivationInfluences on Identity Formation1 Cognitive Development Adolescents with formal operations more likely raise and resolve identity issues2 Personal Choices Early adolescent drug use undermines identity development and leads to diffusion3 LifeExperiences Going to college fosters identity moratorium4 Parenting Foreclosed identity more common with authoritarian or overlyprotective parents diffused identity more common with neglecting parents and moratorium more common with authoritative5 Social Context SES and historical factors eg systemic racism influence identity developing shaping the choices adolescents see as reasonably availableEmergent AdulthoodJeffrey Arnett 2000 suggests there is a distinct developmental period of emergent adulthood 1825 when there is no normative demographics for what people should be doingHaving left the dependency of childhood and adolescence and having not yet entered the enduring responsibilities that are normative in adulthood emerging adults often exploring a variety of possibilities life directions love work and worldviewEmergent Adulthood Features1 The age of identity exploration2 The age of instability3 The most selffocused age of life4 The age of felling inbetween5 The age of possibility
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