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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 4070
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Psych4070DevelopmentalPsychologyTheScienceofStudyingDevelopmentDevelopmentalResearchDesignsSciencetheoriesandhypothesesTheoryintegratedsetofprinciplesthatexplainsandpredictswilloccurandthingsoccurwhatwhyHypothesistestablepossiblerelationshipbetweeneventsShouldmakespecificpredictionsaboutwhatwillhappenifatheoryistrueUsethemtosupportorgoagainstatheoryDevelopmentalPsychisascienceItfollowsthescientificmethodScientificMethodwaytocollectinformationimpartiallyPsychologistsdontcontrolwhatisstudiedasmuchasotherscientistsHardsciencesvsSocialSciencesSocialstudiespeoplepsychologysociologyeveneconomyHardsciencesarethingslikechemistryphysicsthingsthatsuckCantachievetheamountofhardevidenceasinthehardsciencesThereisalwaysadegreeofuncertaintyInexperimentstheScientificMethodhas5steps1DevisearesearchquestionfrompreviousstudiesbyreviewingscientificliteratureorscientificobservationsObservationshavetobesystematicandpurposefulgatheringdatawithapurposeinmindthatpurposeistotestahypothesis2DevelopahypothesisIthastobetestableThedatahastobeabletogofororagainstthehypothesis3TestthehypothesisbydesigningandconductinganexperimentSometimesinpsychyouhavetoparticipateinunobtrusiveobservationsobservebehaviorwithoutthepersonknowingtheyarebeingwatched4DrawconclusionsDoesyourdatasupportyourhypothesisornot5PublicizeyourresultsOtherscientistsmustEvaluateReplicatechancesaretheseconclusionswillbedifferentTheScientificMethodguaranteestocatcherrorsSelfcorrectionmethodOtherpeoplecanlookatthestudyandreplicateittheycangenerallyfindifthefirstpersonmadeamistakeRandomthingabouttextbooks5ofstuffinbookiswrongthatswhytheykeepcomingoutwithnewadditionsButthatmeans95ofthestuffwereadiscorrectandwontbechangedTodescribedevelopmentsciencefocusesontypicalpatternsNormativedataandindividualvariationsinthosepatternsIdeographicdataGatheringdatadirectobservationscasestudiesgatheringalltheinfoaboutanindividualcontrolledexperimentspreferredwayselfreportsamongothermethodsDevelopmentalResearchDesignsResearchdesignaplantoconducttheexperimentTheexperimentisalwaysdonetoevaluateahypothesisWhatquestionsaretobeansweredhowtoselectparticipantshowtocollectdataandhowtointerpretitandhowvalidconclusionscanbedrawnBestwaytoassignparticipantsisRandomYouwanttotrytogetarepresentativesamplesampleistypicaltothepopulationHypothesiseducatedguessstatescausalrelationshipbetweentwovariablesAchangeinonevariablecausesachangeintheothervariableIndependentVariableIVcausesdependentvariabletochangeControlledDependentVariableDVdependsontheindependentvariableControlledExperimentcontrolthingssoonlytheIVchangesThatwayyouwillbesuretheIVcausestheDVbehaviortochangeHypothesischangeintheIVcausestheDVtochangeDevelopmentalHypothesisstatescausalrelationshipbetween2variableswhereIVisusuallyageDevelopmentalResearchDesignplanforexperimenttoevaluateadevelopmentalhypothesisYouareevaluatinghowpeoplechangewithageCrosssectionaldesignndMoe2gradeIQis60thLarry4gradeIQis72thCurly6gradeIQis89SupportshypothesisthatincreaseinageisanincreaseinintelligenceLongitudinaldesignndMoein2gradeIQis60thMoein4gradeIQis68thMoein6gradeIQis80AlsosupportshypothesisWhynotusecrosssectionaldesignsforeverythingTheyarequickcheapandsimpleInCrosssectionaleachpersonismeasuredonceandonlyonceatoneageInlongitudinalyoucanstudythematallagesAdvantagestoCrosssectionalQuickinexpensiveandlatesttheoriescanbetestedyoucouldtestfrugalitywithageovera30yearspaninlikeadaywithCrosssectionalWithLongitudinalitwouldtakeyou30yearsTHISISTHEMOSTCOMMONLYUSEDINRESEARCHPSYCHDisadvantagestoCrosssectionalMeasuresdifferencesbetweenagegroupsNOThowapersonchangesovertimeCohortdifferencesvstheeffectsofagingCohortsaregroupsofpeopleofthesameageCohortdifferenceseffecthowyougrowupLongitudinaladvantagesMeasureschangeinanindividualyoucanseetheeffectsofagingYoualsohaveacompleteindividualrecordthroughouttheagerangeofeachpersonLongitudinaldisadvantagesSubjectattritionmortalitynotquickmoreexpensivecantseparateeffectsofagingfromtheeffectsofhistoryTheCrossgenerationalProblemTheCrossGenerationalproblemlongtermenvironmentalchangesmaylimitlongitudinalstudysconclusionstoonlythegenerationstudiedCrossSequentialdesignndthStudymoein2gradeandlarryin4thenwaittwoyearsndMoein2IQis60thLAryin4IQis72moeIQis68thLarryin6IQis85SupportshypothesisNotasquickascrosssectionalbutquickerthanlongitudinaldesignAdvantagesofCrossSequentialQuickerlessexpensivethanlongitudinalPartialindividualrecordCanseparateagingfromhistoryyoundthththndthhavemoefrom2to4grandandlarryfrom4to6youdonthaveanyonefrom2to6ThesearecompromisedesignsIngeneralthesearethebestdesignsbecausetheyarentaslongaslongitudinalbutyoucanstillwatchhowpeoplechangeovertimeCrosssectionaleachpersonismeasured1timeLongitudinal1groupfollowedthroughallagesSequentialfollows2ormoregroupsthrough2ormoreagesCorrelationsandHypothesesManyhypothesesarearesultfromsomeonenoticescorrelationsintheirenvironmentCorrelationscanbeamongmorethan2variablesCorrelations
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