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Psyc 4070 Exam Two (got 94% in the course)

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PSYC 4070
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JCRReed 1Chapter 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in the Preschool YearsPhysical Growth Preschool years there is steady increase in heightweightBorn68lbs so triples in the first two years and then slows by preschool years Age 2 average child approximately 2530lbs close to 36 in Age 6average weight is 46lbsaverage height is 46 inVery little differencevariation between 2 year old preschoolersDifferencesvariations more pronounced as preschool years advance ie preschoolers become less alikeEXboys grow talleron average weigh more than girlsDifferences often reflect economic conditions in homeThere are differences and this is due to environmental factors nutrition percentage of children living in poverty in the US is increasingEXindividuals from families living below poverty level are shorter in heightweigh less NutritionRate of growth slower in preschool years than infancy SO preschoolers need less food to maintain growthFreaks parents outworry not eating enoughIs fairly commonBUT children usually maintain appropriate food intake Health and Illness Preschool yearsare typically healthy Coldsrespiratory illnessesmost frequent illnessesbenefits from minor illnessesallows child to build up immunityGreatest threat injuriesaccidents before age 10 2x more likely to die from injury remains until late adulthoodassociated with high levels of physical activity curiositylack of judgment at this timeEx Bryantpoison control boys more active so more at risk for injury encouraged to be more activecultural factorssome cultures keep tighter rein on their children Asiansso less likely for injury economic factorschildren raised in poverty high crime substandard housing morelikely for injurySources of risk falls burns drowning in tubstanding H2O household cleaners auto accidentBIG risk to children under 6 Lead Poisoning lead found in paint ceramics gasoline fumes are inhaled especially in major JCR2urban areas where smog and air pollution is a problem found more often in poorer childrenusually live in older homes typicallyhaving leadbased paintsExposure to leadlower IQ hyperactivity distractibilitylinked to aggressive behaviordelinquency Exposure to high levelsserious illness or death Legislationno leadbased paint in places where children resideGrowing BrainBrain grows very fast N preschool yearsat age 2 only 34 sizeweight of adult brainat age 5 about 90Reason for rapid growth increase in neural connections neural branching among cells interconnections allow more complex communication between neuronsequates with rapid growth of cognitive skills better movementcoordination development of cerebellum Brain lateralization begins in preschool years brain increasingly more specializeddifferentiatedwhat occurs is that cognitive functions located more in one hemisphere than other EX Left hemisphere more lateralized for verbal skills positive emotions etcpossibly more sad if stroke affects left side of brain Right hemispherenonverbalauditory skills negative emotions etcpossibly laugh when receive bad news if right side affected Can be compensated especially in young patients The undamaged hemisphere will compensate and take over what the damaged hemisphere used to doSome say females brain predisposed to function different than males some say results from geneticsthese are structural differences in brainsothers say environmental influencefemales as infants get more encouragement for verbal skills than malesis probably combination of twoMotor Development2JCR3motor skills develop rapidly in preschool yearsGross Motor Skillsrapid increase in these Reasons 1 Combo of brain developmentmyelinization of neurons in areas of brain related to balancecoordination cerebellum less clumsy than earlier in life2 Spend lots of time practicing theseactivity level higher at age 3 than any other time in lifeEXs Gross Motor Skills developing during preschool yearsjumping hopping ascendingdescending stairs Fine Motor Skillsalso increase rapidly Handednesspreference for using one hand over another develops by 7 months 90 are right handed 10 are left handed more boys than girls Longstanding myths about leftiesdevil portrayed as being left handedSinisterLatinon the leftDont force child to use hand different from what appears to be preference some research pointing to possible benefits lots of artistic individuals were leftiesIntellectual DevelopmentPreoperational StagePiagets stage of cog development for ages 27operational means logic therefore prelogicuse of symbolic thinking grows mental reasoning emerges use of concepts increases EXSees keyschild says Go to store Concept Keysrepresent ride in carSymbolic function characteristic of preoperational stage is ability to use wordsobjects as symbols to represent something not physically present EX Toy car represents actual car that mommy drives Use of language becomes more sophisticated at this time Piaget believed language grows out of thought said growth in cognitive ability during this period provides foundation for language ability Preoperational means not capable of operations
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