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Psychology Dev Exam2 (got the best grade in class)

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PSYC 4070
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Exam 2 Dev PsychologyLanguage Development and the Big Bang Theory Syntatic Structures ChomskyPhonological Rule System has to do with the sounds and sound combinations used to make up words To master the phonological rule system you have to be able to decipher the relevant sounds for your language you have to be able to reproduce those sounds or a close approximation thereof and you have to be able to tell the difference between sound combinations that are permissible and those that are illegal in your languageMorphological Rule System specifies when and how you should combine prefixes and suffixes with root words to make new words Prefixes suffixes and root words are collectively called morphemes which is related to the word morphologicalThe semantic rule system specifies how youre supposed to combine words based on word meaning The pragmatic rule system contains the rules for how we ought to use language given the nature of a particular social situation Syntax specifies the rules for combining words based on the grammar of a languageFor every idea a person wants to communicate there is a beginning underlying level which Chomsky called the deep structure and a final expressed level which Chomsky called the surface structure The deep structure is more or less rooted at the level of the seed language and has some unknown form The surface structure is the form we actually produce when we put the idea into wordsPhase Structure Rules are rules for converting sentences from the deep structure form to the surface structure form depending on the grammar of the specific languageLanguage Acquisition Device LAD is a proposed inborn brain device that contains all possible grammatical morphological and maybe even phonological rules for all possible languages and determines which rules are relevant for a given child based on the language she is exposed to in her surrounding environmentAdam and Eve and the Garden of Eden Studies A First Lanuage The Early Stages BrownSemantic Relation the roles played by words in a sentence including such roles as agent beneficiary instrument and patientAgent Role Someone or something that causes or instigates an action or process Usually animate but not always an agent must be perceived as having its own motivating force Harriet sangPatient Role Someone or something either in a physical state or suffering from a change of state The wood is dryExperiencer Role Someone having a mental or perceptual experience or having a mental or emotional disposition Tom saw the snakeBeneficiery Role Someone who is the recipient of a state or process including possession Instrument Role Something that plays a role in bringing about a process or action but that is not the instigator it is used by an agent Tom opened the door with a keyLocation Role The place or location of a state action or process The spoon is in the drawerComplement Role The verb names an action that brings something into existence The complement on a more or less specific level completes the verb Mary sang a songExam 2 Dev PsychologyMean Length of Utterance MLU an extremely popular way of rapidly characterizing the complexity of childrens speech by calculating the average number of morphemes per utterance Invented by Roger BrownRich Interpretation using the immediate social and environmental contexts as clues to help interpret the intent andor meaning of childrens utterancesContent Wordsthe major heavyduty words like nouns and verbs that carry most of the meaning in a sentence Most Englishspeaking children tend to pick up nouns and then verbs first and then later pick up the little filler words Filler Words little words like prepositions pronouns connectives and articles that arent always necessary to understand the basic meanings of sentences but which are grammatically required by the language Children tend to pick them up relatively lateTelegraphic Speech speech in which the filler words are omitted but in which the basic message still is conveyedGrammatical Morphemes see morphemes The smallest units of meaning in a language There are two main types free morphemes which can exist on their own and are sometimes called root words and bound morphemes which can exist only when attached to other words at the beginning called prefixes their end called suffixes or in the middle called infixes Modulation of meaning basically the same as morphologyShe Loves Me but She Loves me Not The Affectional Systems HarlowInfantMother Affectional System the love relationship between babies and their mothersReflex StageStage of Comfort and AttachmentStage of Security Separation StageSurrogate Mothers are used by the Harlows refers to the wire and cloth mothers that many infant monkeys were raised withThe Invisible Bungee Cord Attachment and Loss BowlbyRetrospective science an approach to doing psychological science in which behaviors are observed at a later point in time and inferences are made about the precipitating causes of those behaviors Its a backwardlooking approachProspective science an approach to doing psychological science in which the goal is to observe behaviors at an early point in time and observe how they change and develop over time Its a forwardlooking approach
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