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Final

PSYC 4072 final exam

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 4072
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC 4072Interpersonal RelationshipsIntroductionHow does aging affect interpersonal relationshipsDoes the number of friends change or remain stable throughout adulthoodStereotypes vs what the literature saysIt is important to consider the topic of interpersonal relationships from an adult developmental perspectiveCommon Myths about Intergenerational RelationshipsMyth 1 The years after the last child leaves the home empty nest is a time of considerable emotional pain particularly for womenMyth 2 Medicare provides all of the needed health care for disabled older adultsMyth 3 a century ago elderly parents and their children lived together more often bc families were more caring the modern family is more isolated geographically and emotionallyMyth 4 most parents 65 are neglected by their adult children who never visit them or who callously place them in nursing homes at the slightest provocationParents and Adult Children81 of all middleaged and elderly adults have living childrenFilial maturityoDevelopmental transitions where adult children begin to identify with their parents and their relationships with parents are alteredFilial anxietyoOccurs when adult children realize that they may be forced to take on the care of a disabled parent may create a certain amount of concern and worry in the adult childFilial obligation or filial pietyoIn other cultures it is expected that children will take on the care of their parents in old ageoHispanic Asian and AA children have this attitude meaning that they feel committed to taking care of their parents should it become necessaryGrandparentingGrandparenting can be rewarding for several reasonsoIndulge without responsibilitiesoReinvolvement in ones personal pastBenefits of expressing their generativity through interacting with the youngest generationGrandparents raising grandchildren skip generation familyoSkip generation family occurs for a variety of reasons substance abuse by parents child abuse or neglect by parents teenage pregnancy or failure of parents to handle children parental unemployment divorce AIDS incarcerationoCan contribute positively to the grandparents sense of identity particularly AA grandmothersPsychological PerspectivesSocioemotional selectivity theoryoPeople reduce the rangesize of their network of relationships as they move through adulthood to maximize social and emotional gains and minimize risksAttachment theoryoOnes approach to close relationships is based on the attachment style developed in early childhoodoSecure attachment styleCaregiver responds appropriately promptly and consistently to needsChild uses caregiver as a secure base for exploration Protests caregivers departure and seeks proximity and is comforted on return returning to exploration May be comforted by the stranger but shows clear preference for the caregiverSecurely attached adults tend to have positive views of themselves their partners and their relationships They feel comfortable with intimacy and independence balancing the twooAnxious attachment styleCaregiver inconsistent between appropriate and neglectful responsesChild unable to use caregiver as a secure base seeking proximity before separation occurs distressed on separation with ambivalence anger reluctance to warm to caregiver and return to play on return preoccupied with caregivers availability seeking contact but resisting angrily when it is achieved not easily calmed by strangerAnxiouspreoccupied adults seek high levels of intimacy approval and responsiveness from partners becoming overly dependent They tend to be less trusting have less positive views about themselves and their partners and may exhibit high levels of emotional expressiveness worry and impulsiveness in their relationshipsoAvoidant attachment styleCaregiver little or no response to distressed child discourages crying and encourages independenceChild little affective sharing in play little or no distress on departure little or no visible response to return ignoring or turning away with no effort to maintain contact if picked up treats the stranger similarly to the caregiverDismissiveavoidant adults desire a high level of independence often appearing to avoid attachment altogether They view themselves as selfsufficient invulnerable to attachment feelings and not needing close relationships They tend to suppress their feelings dealing with rejection by distancing themselves from partners of whom they often have a poor opinionoFearful styleThese adults have mixed feelings about close relationships both desiring and feeling uncomfortable with emotional closeness They tend to mistrust their partners and view themselves as unworthy They tend to seek less intimacy suppressing their feelingsoDismissive styleDesire a high level of independence often appearing to avoid attachment altogether They view themselves as selfsufficient invulnerable to attachment feelings and not needing close relationships They tend to suppress their feelings dealing with rejection by distancing themselves from partners of whom they often have a poor opinionMarital StatusMarriageoBy age 55 only 4 of all men and women in the US have never been married beforeoDefined as a legally sanctioned union between a man and a womanoProtective effects greater happiness
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