[PSYC 4176] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (12 pages long)

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7 Feb 2017
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PSYC 4176
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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PSYC 4176 TEST 1 NOTES
CHAPTER 1
Abnormal: based on the normal probability of distribution2 standard deviations above or
below the mean (about 3% of the population). Another definition: where it impedes on your
ability to do basic functions.
o Flynn affect: as you give IQ tests over time, the average scores start creeping up
Psychopathology: refers to mental health disorder or condition
o Neurodevelopmental disorders: intellectual disabilities, ADHD, autism spectrum
disorders (ASD), schizophrenia
Developmental psychopathology: speech delays, coordination disorder
Look at this as an age perspective. For example, only being able to say one word
at 3 is not normal or a 25-year-old hysterically crying over something trivial is
not the same as a 2-year-old cryig he they do’t get hat they at
Comorbidity: overlapping within disorders. Example: kids may have ADHD and
autism. Intellectual disability and autism overlap by about 70%
o Challenging behaviors: aggression, tantrums, self-injurious behavior, pica (swallowing
nails, rocks, etc.)
Mood disorders (major depression): over-reaction to a traumatic event in your
life. Lethargi, do’t at otat ith other people, ay eoe eak. Differs
from manic depressive disorders.
Manic-depressive (bipolar): may go many days without sleeping, delusions of
grandeur, talking constantly, euphoria
Anxiety disorders: separation anxiety, generalized anxiety
o Age is a huge index in mental disorders. For children:
Cognitive skills: processing speed, verbal behavior, conceptual skills
Physical skills: crawling, walking, writing, toilet trained
Social behavior: play (reciprocal playplaying with someone else), initiating
conversations, making compliments, eye contact, following instructions
Problems occur when milestones are not met or the child regresses. 40% of children who have
autism develop normally until about 2.
o Intensity of the behavior: more difficult problems to treat are the high frequency, low
intensity.
o Duration of behavior: whether or not the behavior is appropriate. The way you act at
church is different than how they act on the playground
CULTURAL ISSUES
Cultural factors do not effect autismhappens around the same age around the world
Anorexia only occurs in certain cultures
Cultural norms involve expectations that people have about you and others. For example, if you
have autism in our society, the disease is not praised, but embraced. However, in other
outries if you hae a itelletual disaility you do’t at ayoe to ko aout harder to
get someone to marry you if you have a disabled family member.
Rates of psychological disorders are influenced by:
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o How the data is collectedcan sometimes be problematic
o Societal changesscales have changed on how to measure autism. We now have
universal screening which drives up the rate as opposed to 30 years ago when no one
was screened
o Neo-natal care has improved tremendouslychildren may have been extremely
premature, etc. these kids are now saved and in the past they would not have. However,
now some of these kids will develop intellectual disability
Prevalence rates
o Sampling done may have a very select sampleeffects the prevalence.
o Assessments should not last 10-15 minutes, should be about 5-8 hours, this is because
of comorbidity. If a child is diagnosed with autism, we have to test for ADHD and other
diseases.
o Over-medication can have very serious, long-term side effects.
o DSM-5 and ICD-10
We are the only country that uses the DSM-5
Symptoms are listed in order in which they think will develop first in the DSM-5
4 categories of intellectual disability mild, moderate, severe, profound
CHILD PSYCHOLOGY
Psyhology did’t used to e roke up ito setios.
In the early years, there was no distinction between child and adult. There were no toys, kids
were thought of as little adults
Child psychology was founded by G. Stanley Hall, he was the professor at Clack University, first
college to have a psychology department. Got his psychology doctorate degree with Wundt.
o Hall taught the first course on child psychology
The advance of IQ testing was the beginning of psychology
o IQ tests measure aptitude and is not accurate until about 6-7 of age
o IQ tests are very predictive of grades ut a’t predit street sarts or ho otiated
you are
o Can show specific strengths on verbal and nonverbal behavior
o G= general intelligence
No true definition of intelligence
In children we look at 2 components, the IQ test and an adaptive behavior
measure which looks at social and cognitive developmentlook at dressing,
eating, language, crawling, motor development, behavioral problems or the lack
of
The most commonly used adaptive behavior measure is the vinlan social
maturity scale- edgar dole developed it
o Should always be given by a professional
o Minorities have a very high rate of mild and moderate intellectual disabilities on the IQ
test
o Kids develop at different rates and they have intellectual spirts
o Historical issues
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