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Chapter 12

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PSYC 4176
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1Chapter 12 Moral DevelopmentPerspectives on Moral DevelopmentBiologicaloFocus on emotionsoEvolutionary genetic heritageoBrain areasSocial LearningoFocuses on modeling moral behaviorBehavioristoRewards and punishmentCognitive DevelopmentoFocus on moral thoughtoChildren as active thinkers about social rulesSocial Learning Theory Moral behavior is acquired just like any other set of responses through reinforcement and modelingNOT as a special human acitivity with a unique course of developmentThe importance of modelingoOperant conditioningfollowing up childrens good behavior with reinforcement in the form of approval affection and other rewardsis not enough for a child to enable moral responsesoChildren learn to behave morally largely through modelingCharacteristics of Good Models of Moral BehaviorWarmth and responsivenessoChildren are more likely to copy the prosocial actions of an adult who is warm and responsive rather than one who is cold and distantCompetence and poweroChildren admire and therefore tend to select competent and powerful models to imitateConsistency between words and behavioroWhen models say on thing and do anotherchildren generally choose the most lenient standard of behavior that adults demonstratePhysical Punishment and frequent punishment have undesirable side effectsoWhen parents insult and spank they are modeling aggressionoHarshly treated children react withanger resentment and chronic sense of being personally threatened
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