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Child Psyc Exam Two Prep

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PSYC 4176
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Chapter7CognitiveDevelopmentInfoProcessingPerspectiveGeneral models of Information Processing1Store Modelassumes that we hold or store information in three parts of the mental system for processing the sensory register workingshort term memory and long term memory with the use of mental strategies to operate transform adapt use retain the informationa Sensory Registerwhere sights and sounds are stored directlybWorkingshort term memoryactive application of mental strategies as we work on a limited amount of informationcCentral executive working in conjunction with short term memory directs and coordinates incoming information with information already in the system and applies and monitors strategiesdLong term memorypermanent base2 Store model suggests that as we age acapacity increasesbextent and effectiveness of strategy use increasesmemoryrecall gets better with ageprocessing speedretrieval speed decreases with age eventually leveling out around age 1314IConnectionismAArtificial Neural Network modelssimulate the workings of the most basic information processing units neurons and their connections1 Reveal how strengthen of simple connections between units leads to new cognitive capacities2 Consists of thousands of simple processing units organized into layers including an input layer which encodes the task and an output layer which generates the response3 Sometimes called parallel distributed processing systems because information is distributed throughout the entire system over all the units acting in parallelB Findings1great deal of inner change in the strength of connections generally occurs before a network consistently displays a correct response2 gradual internal learning often precedes changes in behavior that appear abrupt or stage like3 System learns by capturing regularities in diverse environmental inputs4 add and remove units similar to synaptic pruning5 understand the cognitive consequences of change in neural connectionscognitive development must take into account the operation of its most basic unitsII Neo Piagetian PerspectiveAccepts Piagets Stages with changes within each stageChanges occur due to increases in working memory due to brain development practice with schemes and atomization and central conceptual structuresA Factors that contribute to cognitive development1Brain Developmentneurological changes improve the efficiency of thought leading to readiness of each stage2Practice with schemes and atomizationschemes become more automatic freeing working memory for combining existing schemes and generating new ones3Formation of central conceptual structuresnetworks of concepts and relations that permit them to think about a wide range of situations in more advanced waysBContinuum of acquisitionmany understandings appear in specific situations at different times rather than being mastered all at once1Different forms of the same logical insight vary in their processing demands2Childrens experience varies wildlyIIISieglers Strategy Choice ModelEvolutionary perspective on cognitionStrategy Generation Survival of selected strategies death of strategieswhen given challenging situationsproblems children generate a variety of strategiesWith experience some strategies are selected they become more frequent and surviveOthers become less frequent and die offChildrens mental strategies display variation and selection yielding adaptive problemsolving techniquesA Children experiment with diverse strategies on many types of problems including math numerical estimation conservation memory lists reading first words telling time spelling and even tictactoeB Overlapping Waves TheoryWhen faced with a problem or at ask children try a variety of strategies observe how well they work gradually select those strategies leading to rapid accurate answers1performance tends to progress from a single incorrect approach to a highly variable state in which children try different strategies to use of a more advance procedure2Strategy selection is based on accuracy and speed3Correct solutions become more strongly associated with problems and children display the most efficient strategy automatic retrieval of the answer4 The more variable the strategies the better the eventual performanceWays of finding more efficient strategiesUse slower TechniqueReasoning about conceptsBeing TaughtIV Types of AttentionASustainedincreases sharply between 235 years frontal lobe growth more complex play goals adult scaffolding1Focus on complex stimuli such as toys and video clips2Rapid growth of frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex3The capacity to generate increasingly complex play goals4Adult scaffolding jointly responsible5Becomes goal oriented as children become betterB Cognitive InhibitionAbility to control distracting stimuli Internalthoughts Externaldistractions
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