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Final

Child Psyc Exam One Prep

13 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 4176
Professor
All

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Description
Theoryan orderly integrated set of statements that describes explains and predicts behaviorContinuous development a process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin withDiscontinuous development a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific timesTabula RasaLatin for blank slateNoble Savagesnaturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong with an innate plan for orderly healthy growthMaturationrefers to genetically determined naturally unfolding course of growthNormative approach measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age related averages are computed to represent typical developmentPsychoanalytic perspectivechildren move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectationsHow these conflicts are resolved determines the persons ability to learn to get along with others and to cope with anxietyPsychosexual theoryemphasizes that how parents manage their childs sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality developmentPsychosocial theoryin addition to mediating between id impulses and superego demands the ego makes a positive contribution to development acquiring attitudes and skills at each stage that make the individual an active contributing member of societyBehaviorismdirectly observable events stimuli and responses are the appropriate focus of studySocial Learning Theory emphasizes modeling otherwise known as imitation or observational learning as a powerful source of developmentInformation Processing Theorytheory which states that the human mind might also be viewed as a symbolmanipulating system through which information flowsDevelopmental Cognitive Neuroscienceresearchers from psychology biology neuroscience and medicine study the relationship between changes in the brain and the development of a childs cognitive processing and behavior patternsEthologyconcerned with adaptive or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary historySensitive periodtime that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influencesHowever its boundaries are less well defined than those of a critical periodDevelopment can occur later but its harder to induceEvolutionary developmental psychologyschool of psychology that seeks to understand the adaptive value of species wide cognitive emotional and social competencies as those competencies change with ageSociocultural theoryfocus on how culture the values beliefs and customs and skills of a social group is transmitted to the next generationAccording to Vygotsky social interaction in particular cooperative dialogues between children and more knowledgeable members of society is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a communities cultureEcological systems theoryBronfenbrennerview that the child as developing with complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environmentMicro system consists of the activities and interaction patterns in the childs immediate surroundingsMesosystemencompasses connections between micro systemsExosystemsocial settings that do not contain children but that nevertheless affect childrens experiences in immediate settingsMacrosystemcultural values laws and customs and resourcesChronosystemchanges in life events can be imposed on the child they arise from within the child since children as they get older select modify and create many of their own settings and experiencesDynamic systems perspectivethe childs mind body and physical and social worlds form an integrated system that guide mastery of new skillsThe system is dynamic or constantly in motionA change in any part of it disrupts the current organismenvironment relationshipWhen this happens the child actively reorganizes his behavior so the components of the system work together again but in a more complex effective waySocial policyany planned set of actions by a group institution or governing body directed at attaining a social goalPublic policylaws and government programs aimed at improving current conditionsIndividualistic societiespeople think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needsCollectivist societiespeople define themselves as part of a group and stress group goals over individual goalsChapter 2
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